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srachai
次女カイちゃんと私↑パタヤにて
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妻はタイ人、娘ばかり3人も!

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■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
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posted by fanblog

2016年05月08日

NHKの使命 政府の広報ではない

--The Asahi Shimbun, May 2
EDITORIAL: NHK must not serve simply as the government’s mouthpiece
(社説)NHKの使命 政府の広報ではない

Japan Broadcasting Corp. (NHK) is not the government’s public relations agency.
 NHKは、政府の広報機関ではない。

It cannot accomplish its mission as a news medium if it only reports the government’s announcements as its sole source.
当局の発表をただ伝えるだけでは、報道機関の使命は果たせない。

This is the most basic of the basics of broadcast journalism. But NHK President Katsuto Momii still doesn’t understand the core mission of the organization he has been heading for two years and three months now if his recent remarks are any indication.
 それは放送人としての「イロハのイ」だ。しかし、籾井勝人会長は就任から2年3カ月になるが、今もその使命を理解していないとしか思えない。

During an April 20 meeting of senior officials at NHK, Momii said the public broadcaster’s reporting on the recent destructive earthquakes in Kumamoto Prefecture and surrounding areas and the disaster’s possible effects on nuclear power generation should be “based on authorities’ official announcements,” according to informed sources.
NHK should focus on airing the official views announced by authorities, he reportedly said.
“If various assessments by experts were broadcast, it would only end up unnecessarily raising concerns among the public,” he was quoted as saying.
 籾井氏は、先月の熊本地震に関する局内会議で、原発に関する報道は「公式発表をベースに」と発言した。「当局の発表の公式見解を伝えるべきだ。いろいろある専門家の見解を伝えても、いたずらに不安をかき立てる」などとも指示した。

Momii expounded on his comments in response to a question about them during an April 26 session of the Lower House Committee of Internal Affairs and Communications.
 26日の衆院総務委員会で籾井氏は、こう答弁している。

Momii said the official announcements he was referring to were information released by the Meteorological Agency, the Nuclear Regulation Authority and Kyushu Electric Power Co.
 「公式発表」とは「気象庁、原子力規制委員会、九州電力」の情報のこと。

As for Kyushu Electric Power’s Sendai nuclear plant in Kagoshima Prefecture, which is immediately south of Kumamoto Prefecture, Momii said he believed his organization should broadcast, without any additional reporting, announced information such as data provided by the radiation monitoring posts installed for issuing evacuation orders around the Sendai plant.
“If the NRA believes that the nuclear plant is safe or can remain in operation, we will just report it like that,” Momii told the committee.
鹿児島県にある川内(せんだい)原発については「(放射線量を監視する)モニタリングポストの数値などをコメントを加味せず伝える。規制委が、安全である、(稼働を)続けていいといえば、それを伝えていく」と考えているという。

During natural disasters, news media should, of course, strive to provide the public with accurate information as quickly and carefully as possible.
 災害の時、正確な情報を速く丁寧に伝えるよう努めるのは、報道機関として当然だ。

Announcements made by the central and local governments and various companies are, needless to say, important elements of news reports on such events.
自治体や政府、企業などの発表は言うまでもなく、ニュースの大事な要素である。

At the same time, however, it is also a vital role of the news media to examine and fact-check such announcements and report them along with views based on expert knowledge and responses from citizens.
 同時に、発表内容を必要に応じて点検し、専門知識に裏付けられた多様な見方や、市民の受け止めなどを併せて伝えるのも報道機関の不可欠な役割だ。

Momii’s instructions to senior NHK editors can be interpreted as a demand that only official announcements should be treated as facts.
 しかし籾井氏の指示は「公式発表」のみを事実として扱うことを求めているように受け取れる。

What he said is tantamount to an order that NHK should stop performing its most basic function, which is examining things from various angles and reporting facts from multiple viewpoints.
ものごとを様々な角度から見つめ、事実を多面的に伝えるという報道の基本を放棄せよと言っているに等しい。

Momii’s rationale for demanding that reports on these topics should be based on official views and announcements seems to be the necessity to reassure local residents.
 「住民に安心感を与える」ためというのが籾井氏の言い分のようだ。

If so, he is underestimating viewers’ ability to understand and assess news and information.
だが、それは視聴者の理解する力を見くびっている。

In a survey conducted last year by the NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, 85 percent of the respondents said they wanted to select the information that suits their needs on their own. Moreover, 61 percent of the people surveyed said they were confident about their ability to grasp reliable data from a sea of information.
 NHK放送文化研究所の昨年の調査では、85%が「必要な情報は自分で選びたい」とし、61%が「多くの情報の中から信頼できるものをより分けることができるほうだ」と回答した。

The survey shows that many viewers want not only information officially provided by the government and companies, but also multifaceted reports on various topics so that they can make their own evaluations and judgments.
 多くの視聴者は、政府や企業などが公式に与える情報だけでなく、多角的な報道を自分で吟味したいと考えているのだ。

Momii has a history of making comments that raise serious questions about his editorial stance and journalistic ethics.
In his inaugural press conference in 2014, Momii said, “We cannot say left when the government says right.”
 籾井氏は一昨年の就任会見で「政府が右ということを左というわけにはいかない」と発言。

Last year, when he was asked whether NHK would deal with the “comfort women" issue in its reports on the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II, he replied, “The government’s policy is the key.”
昨年は戦後70年で「慰安婦問題」を扱うか問われ、「政府の方針がポイント」と語った。

Each time the NHK chief made remarks indicating loyal support for the government, he faced bitter criticism. But he is showing no signs of mending his ways.
 政府に寄り添うような発言はその都度批判されてきたが、一向に改まらない。

The very credibility of NHK’s entire news reporting could be destroyed unless Momii stops damaging it.
このままでは、NHKの報道全体への信頼が下がりかねない。
posted by srachai at 09:05| Comment(0) | 朝日英字

2016年05月07日

日比防衛協力 海自機貸与で監視能力高めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Leasing of MSDF aircraft should help Philippines’ patrol capabilities
日比防衛協力 海自機貸与で監視能力高めよ

The Philippines is confronted with China’s attempt to unilaterally change the status quo in the South China Sea by stepping up its maritime activities in the region. In tandem with the United States, Japan should promote multilayered defense cooperation with Manila.
 フィリピンが南シナ海で、中国の一方的な海洋進出と現状変更に直面している。日本は、米国と連携し、重層的な防衛協力を進めたい。

Defense Minister Gen Nakatani and his Philippine counterpart Voltaire Gazmin agreed during a telephone conversation that Japan would lease Maritime Self-Defense Force TC-90 training aircraft that have been decommissioned. Up to five TC-90s are likely to be leased. The agreement also calls for Japan to provide education and training of pilots and related equipment as well as to cooperate locally in such operations as the maintenance of the aircraft.
 中谷防衛相がフィリピンのガズミン国防相と電話会談し、退役した海上自衛隊の練習機TC90を有償貸与することで合意した。最大で5機の見通しだ。操縦士の教育・訓練や関連機材の提供、現地での機体整備などでも協力する。

Many of the planes possessed by the Philippine Navy are outdated and their performance is poor. It is difficult for the Philippine Navy to singlehandedly face up to China, which has been flexing its muscles on the back of its rapid military buildup through such activities as the creation of man-made islands in the South China Sea.
 フィリピン海軍が保有する航空機の多くは老朽化が進んでおり、性能も低い。急速な軍備増強を背景に、南シナ海で人工島造成などを強行する中国に、単独で対抗することは難しい。

With a flight range of 1,870 kilometers, the TC-90s would be mobilized for the Philippine military’s warning and surveillance operations and disaster relief activities. As TC-90s are capable of covering most of the Spratly Islands, where China has been building military fortifications, the Philippines’ patrol capabilities will likely be enhanced significantly.
 航続距離が1870キロと長いTC90は、フィリピン軍の警戒・監視や災害救援活動などに活用される予定だ。中国が軍事拠点化を進めるスプラトリー(南沙)諸島の大半をカバーできるため、哨戒能力は大幅に向上しよう。

The deal on the lease of TC-90s was initiated at the request of Manila. It is the first application of the Japan-Philippine agreement on defense equipment and transfer of technology that was signed in February based on an accord reached at a bilateral summit meeting in June last year.
 今回の貸与は、フィリピンが要請した。昨年6月の日比首脳会談の合意に基づき、今年2月に署名された日比防衛装備品・技術移転協定の最初の適用例となった。

Reasonable deal

The lease is also in keeping with the “three principles on transfer of defense equipment” decided by the government in April 2014, which call for, among other things, preventing the leakage of technology to a third party. By going through the necessary procedures, the lease amounts to reasonable cooperation on defense equipment.
 第三国への技術流出防止などを定めた2014年4月決定の「防衛装備移転3原則」にも則のっとっている。一連の手続きを適切に踏んでおり、妥当な装備協力である。

MSDF vessels made successive port calls in the Philippines last month.
 フィリピンには4月、海自艦船が相次いで寄港した。

The submarine Oyashio, on a training voyage, called at Subic Port with a destroyer in early April. Late in that month, the MSDF’s largest destroyer, the Ise, which carries helicopters, made a goodwill call at the port.
 練習航海中の潜水艦「おやしお」と、護衛艦が上旬、スービック港に立ち寄った。下旬には、海自最大級のヘリコプター搭載型護衛艦「いせ」が親善訪問した。

Philippine President Benigno Aquino fully supports the initiative of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration for Japan’s “proactive contribution to peace” and highly evaluates the security legislation established by it. Therefore, it is expected the bilateral relationship will be reinforced.
 アキノ大統領は、安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」を全面支持し、安全保障法制も高く評価する。2国間関係も強化されよう。

In this connection, it is important for the two countries to closely cooperate with Washington to ensure regional stability.
 重要なのは、地域の安定のため米国と緊密に協調することだ。

When U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter conferred with Aquino in Manila in mid-April, it was agreed that the two countries would hold regular joint patrols in the South China Sea.
 カーター国防長官は4月中旬、マニラでアキノ氏と会談し、南シナ海で米比の共同哨戒活動を定期的に実施することで合意した。

Within days after this accord, U.S. military aircraft conducted warning and surveillance operations in the vicinity of the Scarborough Shoal, which is claimed both by the Philippines and China. These operations were undertaken in accordance with the U.S.-Philippine agreement.
 その直後に、フィリピンと中国が領有権を争うスカボロー礁付近で、米空軍機が警戒・監視活動を行ったのも合意の一環だ。

It is institutionally difficult for the Self-Defense Forces to conduct activities constantly in the South China Sea.
 自衛隊が南シナ海で恒常的に活動するのは、体制的に困難だ。

It is essential for the SDF to assist in various ways to build capabilities of the Philippines and other countries concerned while appropriately sharing roles with the U.S. military, thereby contributing to peace in the South China Sea.
 米軍と適切に役割分担しつつ、フィリピン軍など当事国の能力構築を様々な手段で支援することを通じて、南シナ海の平和に貢献することが大切である。

These endeavors will certainly lead to ensuring the security of sea-lanes for Japan without allowing China to change the status quo by force.
 それが、中国の力による現状変更を認めず、日本自身の海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全を確保することにもつながろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 5, 2016)
posted by srachai at 08:46| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2016年05月06日

子どもの貧困 学び支え、連鎖断ち切ろう

--The Asahi Shimbun, May 5
EDITORIAL: Child poverty in Japan must be tackled with utmost urgency
子どもの貧困 学び支え、連鎖断ち切ろう

A report released in April by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) painted a grim picture of child poverty in Japan.
It said children of the poorest households in Japan are much more disadvantaged than their peers in many other industrialized countries.
 最も貧しい家庭の子どもが、他の多くの先進国と比べて、厳しい状況に置かれている――。

The study focused on the disparities between children at the bottom and those in the middle in the wealthiest nations. The inequality gap in Japan was the eighth largest among the 41 countries surveyed.
 4月に公表された国連児童基金(ユニセフ)の報告書は、そんな日本の現状を浮かび上がらせた。最貧困層と標準的な層との格差を国ごとに分析しており、日本の格差は41カ国の中で8番目に大きいという。

Japan also ranked far below the average among industrial nations in terms of the relative poverty rate, or the ratio of people living on less than half the median income. One in six Japanese children was poor by this relative measure, which reflects how far the poorest children have plummeted behind those in the middle tier.
 所得が真ん中の人の半分に満たない人の割合を示す「相対的貧困率」でも、日本の子どもは6人に1人が貧困層にあたり、先進国の中で悪い方だ。

The UNICEF study highlighted the fact that child poverty in Japan is spreading and deepening.
貧しさの広がりに加え、ユニセフの調査でその度合いも深刻であることを指摘されたと言える。

The government needs to tackle this problem with policy support measures targeted at needy households.
 対策としてまず問われるのは、そうした家庭へのサポートだ。

Obviously, effective welfare and other relief for poor families, such as allowances to help cover their daily expenses and steps to help parents get jobs, are vital for tackling this growing problem.
日々の生活を助ける各種の手当や親の就労への支援など、福祉を中心とする施策が重要であることは言うまでもない。

Even more important, however, is support focused on children. The principal challenge facing policymakers and others concerned is how to break the “chain of poverty,” in which children in poor families remain stuck in poverty even after they grow up, causing the cycle to fester for generations.
 それ以上に考えなければならないのは、子どもたちに焦点を当てた支援だ。生活の苦しい家庭で育った子が、大きくなってもその状態から抜け出せず、世代を超えて続いてしまう「貧困の連鎖」をどう断ち切るか。

Education is the key.
 カギとなるのは教育だ。

OPENING UP NEW HORIZONS
 ■教育で広がる将来

A community center in the city of Saitama is on the frontline of the war against poverty among children.
Twice each week, junior high school students in school uniforms or gym clothes converge on the center after 6 p.m.
 さいたま市内のコミュニティセンター。午後6時を回ると制服や体操着姿の中学生が次々とやって来る。

The facility is a venue for a free “learning support class” program, under which university student volunteers help children of financially strained families with their studies.
経済的に厳しい家庭の子どもたちに、学生ボランティアが週2回、勉強を教える無料の「学習支援教室」だ。

An 18-year-old student who has been working as a volunteer at the center since April once received learning support under the program.
 4月からボランティアをしている女子学生(18)は、かつて教室で学んだ一人だ。

“Whenever I came here, I could find someone who was ready to listen to me,” she says. “This place was a source of emotional and spiritual support for me.”
「ここに来ると、いつでも私の話を聞いてくれる人がいる。心のよりどころみたいな場所でした」

The student has been living only with her mother. When she was in her second year at junior high school, her mother, the family’s bread earner, fell ill and had to rely on financial assistance under the government’s livelihood protection program.
 母と2人暮らし。女子学生が中学2年生の時、家計を支えていた母が体を壊し、生活保護を受けるようになった。

“I wondered if I should start working instead of going on to a university. But after a university student volunteer (at the center) clued me in about college life and other things, I grew more ambitious.”
「進学するより働いた方が、と思った時もあった。けれど、大学生のボランティアさんから学生生活のこととか、いろんな話を聞くうちに夢がふくらんで」。

Now, she is learning about welfare, courtesy of a university scholarship.
今は奨学金で大学に通い、福祉の分野を学んでいる。

The program is operated by a nonprofit organization called “Saitama Youth Support Net” on behalf of the municipal government.
Yasushi Aoto, who heads the organization, stresses the importance of learning support to help poor students. “The problem of poverty can never be solved unless children acquire the ability to carve out a better future for themselves,” Aoto says. “Learning support should be at the core of efforts against poverty.”
 市の委託で教室を運営するNPO「さいたまユースサポートネット」の青砥恭(やすし)代表は言う。「子どもたちが自分自身で未来を切り開く力をつけなければ、貧困問題は解決しない。学びは貧困対策の核です」

The welfare ministry placed much importance on learning support as a key element of policy efforts introduced in April last year to tackle the problem of child poverty under a program to help the needy become financially independent. The ministry has urged local governments to take steps to expand learning support for children of needy families.
 昨年4月に始まった生活困窮者自立支援制度で、厚生労働省は学習支援事業を貧困対策の柱の一つと位置づけ、自治体に実施を促している。

Since this is a program based on voluntary policy initiatives, however, as many as 45 percent of the local governments have no plan to implement specific measures, according to a survey by Aoto’s group.
しかし任意事業のため、青砥さんのNPOの調査では「実施予定なし」の自治体が45%もある。

SURVEYS ONLY WAY TO GRASP THE REALITY
 ■地域の実態調査を

One potentially effective way to accelerate policy efforts to reduce poverty is to make the problem more clearly “visible” to the public.
 こうした取り組みをどう加速させるか。ヒントになりそうなのが、貧困の「見える化」だ。

Earlier this year, Okinawa became the first prefecture to announce its own estimate of its child poverty rate. According to a survey commissioned by the prefectural government, 29.9 percent of children in the prefecture live under the poverty line, a figure that is 80 percent higher than the national average.
 沖縄県は今年、都道府県で初めて独自に子どもの貧困率を29・9%と推計し、公表した。全国の1・8倍という高さだ。

“It's impossible to come up with the appropriate measures unless we grasp the severity of the situation concerning poverty among children in Okinawa,” said Kenta Kishaba, who heads the section for child policy.
 「沖縄の子どもの状況がどれだけ厳しいか。それを把握しないと必要な対策も見えてこない」(喜舎場〈きしゃば〉健太・県子ども未来政策室長)。

Prefectural authorities had to persuade many initially unwilling municipal governments to cooperate in the endeavor.
渋る市町村を説得し、協力を仰いだ。

The survey’s findings showed that the existing systems to support needy families are not working.
Nearly half of families living under the poverty line didn’t use the local government’s program to subsidize the costs of learning materials used at schools, for instance. Nearly 20 percent of these families didn’t even know about the program.
 学校で必要な教材の費用などを援助する就学援助を貧困家庭の半分近くが利用しておらず、制度を知らない人も2割近い。同時に行ったアンケートからは、既存の支援制度が十分に機能していない実態もわかった。

The prefectural government has drawn up a six-year plan to address the problem by setting 34 numerical targets, including reducing the number of needy families that don’t know the subsidy program to zero and ensuring that all municipalities operate learning support classes. It established a 3 billion yen ($28.3 million) fund to achieve those targets.
 県は「就学援助を知らない貧困世帯ゼロ」「学習支援教室を全市町村に拡大」など34の数値目標を含む6カ年計画を作り、30億円の対策基金を設けた。

Ai Tatsuno, who heads the nonprofit corporation that carried out the survey on behalf of the prefectural government, said the local governments took steps to solve the problem after facing the reality (grasped by the survey).
“Understanding the reality is vital also for evaluating the effectiveness of policy measures,” Tatsuno added.
調査を担当した一般社団法人「沖縄県子ども総合研究所」の龍野愛所長は「現実を突きつけられたから政策が動いた。実態把握は、政策の効果を検証する上でも欠かせない」と強調する。

Osaka City also plans to conduct a similar survey of elementary and junior high school students within this fiscal year. Grasping the situation in each area will provide strong impetus to policy efforts to tackle the problem. Other local governments should follow suit, and swiftly.
 大阪市も今年度、小・中学生らを対象に調査を予定する。地域ごとに実態をつかむことが、対策を前進させる大きな力になる。取り組みを急ぎたい。

UP TO SOCIETY TO CONFRONT THE CHALLENGE
 ■社会全体で向き合う

The central government’s policy guidelines for addressing the problem were endorsed by the Cabinet after the law to deal with child poverty came into effect in 2014. They call for effective measures to create the right surroundings and ensure equal opportunities for education so that the future of children will not be affected by the environment in which they grow up.
 「子どもの将来が生まれ育った環境によって左右されることのないよう、必要な環境整備と教育の機会均等を図る」。2014年に施行された子どもの貧困対策法を受け、政府が閣議決定した大綱がうたう理念だ。

But these words should be matched with specific policy actions. The government needs to enhance its policy responses, mainly in the areas of social security and education.
 言葉だけで終わらせてはならない。社会保障と教育を両輪に、対策を充実させたい。

In particular, Japan’s public spending on education in terms of its ratio to the size of its economy is among the lowest in the developed world. The government should drastically increase its education budget.
とりわけ教育分野では、経済規模と比べた公的支出が先進諸国の中で最低水準にとどまる。予算を思い切って増やすべきだ。

A lawmaker of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party recently made disheartening remarks about the proposal to expand scholarships.
“The government should be firmly committed to compulsory education, but students at high schools and universities should work on their own,” the lawmaker said.
 「義務教育は国がしっかりやるが、高校や大学は自立してがんばってもらわないと」。自民党の国会議員が奨学金制度の拡充をめぐって最近、こんな趣旨の発言をした。

This comment echoes a widespread view. But it is high time Japanese society stopped being wedded to this kind of simplistic and outdated thinking based on the principle of personal responsibility.
今も根強い主張だが、そうした単純な「自己責任論」から卒業する時だ。

Children will become the backbone of society. Supporting their healthy development is an investment in the future.
 子どもたちは社会の担い手になっていく。その健やかな育ちを後押しすることは、「未来への投資」にほかならない。

Society at all levels must reach out to support its children. There needs to be broad social consensus on the merits of this principle and what it will entail.
 社会全体で子どもを支える。その合意と負担に向き合う覚悟が問われている。
posted by srachai at 08:43| Comment(0) | 朝日英字

2016年05月05日

野生トキのひな 人との共生と日中協力が大切

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Cooperation from residents, China key to returning crested ibises to wild
野生トキのひな 人との共生と日中協力が大切

A chick has been born to a pair of wild toki Japanese crested ibises − a species designated as a special natural monument − on Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture. It is the first such delightful news in 40 years. We hope the chick will grow safely.
 新潟県の佐渡島で、特別天然記念物トキの野生のつがいから、ひなが誕生した。40年ぶりの朗報である。ぜひとも無事に育ってほしい。

On Sado Island, artificially raised crested ibises have been released into the wild since 2008. The number of crested ibises that have bred in nature has also increased. The chick hatched this time was born to parents who were born and grew up in nature. It is in the grandchild generation of crested ibises released into the wild.
 佐渡島では、人工飼育したトキの放鳥が2008年から続く。自然の中での繁殖も増えた。今回のひなは、自然界で生まれ育った親鳥の間の子供だ。放鳥されたトキの孫の世代にあたる。

The birth is a major milestone in the return of crested ibises to the wild.
 トキの野生復帰に向けた大きな節目と言えよう。

It has been confirmed that there are currently five pairs of wild crested ibises. We probably can expect more crested ibis chicks to be born in the future as well.
 現在、5組の野生トキのペアが確認されている。これからも、ひなの誕生が期待できそうだ。

The scientific name for the Japanese crested ibis is Nipponia nippon. One of its characteristics is its rose-pink − called toki color − feathers. The species used to live in a wide area of East Asia and was a familiar wild bird in Japan, too.
 トキは「ニッポニア・ニッポン」の学名を持つ。朱鷺とき色と呼ばれる淡紅色の羽が特徴だ。かつては東アジアに広く分布し、国内でも身近な野鳥だった。

However, the number of crested ibises sharply dropped due to overhunting for their feathers in the Meiji era (1868-1912) and afterward as well as the deterioration of their habitat. Japanese-born crested ibises that remained on Sado Island went extinct when the last bird died in 2003.
 しかし、羽毛を目的とした明治以降の乱獲や、生息環境の悪化で激減した。佐渡島に残った日本生まれのトキは、03年に最後の1羽が死んで絶滅した。

Since 1999, the Environment Ministry has been artificially breeding the species with crested ibises donated or loaned from China. The ministry also trained them on how to catch prey. About \150 million is spent annually for a project to return crested ibises to the wild.
 環境省は1999年以降、中国からトキの寄贈や貸与を受けて、人工繁殖に取り組んできた。餌の採り方などの訓練も施した。トキの野生復帰事業には、年約1億5000万円が投じられている。

Extinct species’ revival hard

This tells how difficult it is to revive a species that once disappeared.
 姿を消した生物の復活が、いかに難しいかを物語る。

Cooperation from local residents is essential for returning crested ibises to the wild. The amount of agricultural chemicals used in rice paddies was reduced so that loaches and earthworms − crested ibises’ prey − can grow there, and the paddies are filled with water even in winter.
 野生復帰には、住民の協力が欠かせない。トキのえさとなるドジョウやミミズが育つよう、水田での農薬の使用量を減らした。冬にも田に水を張っている。

Thanks to the efforts to have crested ibises coexist with humans, about 150 crested ibises now inhabit the island.
 島内に約150羽のトキが生息するようになったのは、人と共生するための取り組みの成果だ。

The ministry plans to release more than 30 crested ibises into the wild every year, with the aim of having 220 birds settled in nature in 2020.
 環境省は、今後も年30羽以上を放鳥し、20年には220羽が自然界に定着することを目指す。

There are many challenges in breeding crested ibises in nature. The first “completely wild” crested ibis chick whose birth was confirmed this time was believed to have died soon after birth. The cause of the death is unknown, but the birds have natural enemies such as crows.
 自然界での繁殖には試練が多い。今回、誕生が確認された「純野生」の1羽目のひなは、間もなく死んだとみられる。原因は不明だ。カラスなどの天敵もいる。

The ideal structure is for crested ibises born in the wild to increase their numbers on their own in the future by overcoming these difficulties.
 こうした困難を乗り越え、将来的には、野生で生まれたトキが自力で個体数を増やしていくのが、理想の姿だろう。

To this end, it is also important to secure genetic diversity among crested ibises.
 その実現には、トキの遺伝的多様性を確保することも大切だ。

Crested ibises currently living in Japan have five crested ibises from China as ancestors, and there are many pairs that are cousins. Their ability to resist diseases and their reproductive power could diminish if those in the same consanguineous group repeatedly mate with each other. It is important to have crested ibises continually provided by China.
 現在のトキは、いずれも中国からの5羽が先祖で、いとこ同士のペアが多い。血縁同士で交配が進むと、病気への抵抗力や繁殖力が低下する恐れがある。中国から継続的にトキの提供を受けることが重要になる。

China is also making efforts to return crested ibises to the wild. We hope for continued mutual cooperation through crested ibises such as providing China with techniques that Japan has developed to raise the birds.
 中国でもトキの野生復活に取り組んでいる。日本が培ってきた飼育技術を提供するなど、トキを通じた相互協力を続けたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 4, 2016)
posted by srachai at 09:18| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2016年05月04日

個人と国家と憲法と 歴史の後戻りはさせない

--The Asahi Shimbun, May 3
EDITORIAL: Values embodied in Constitution made Japan what it is today
(社説)個人と国家と憲法と 歴史の後戻りはさせない

A booklet published on May 3, 1947, provided a commentary on the “freedom” guaranteed by the Constitution.
One passage read: “What is freedom? In a nutshell, it means to live according to one’s conscience.”
Another passage went on to say: “We are allowed to have any thought. We have the freedom to hold any kind of meeting and create any kind of organization.”
The booklet, titled “Atarashii Kenpo Akarui Seikatsu” (new constitution, sunny life), was published on the day Japan’s postwar Constitution came into effect by “Kenpo Fukyukai” (society for the popularization of the Constitution), a parliamentary body headed by Hitoshi Ashida, a lawmaker who became prime minister in 1948. Some 20 million of the booklets were distributed to households across the nation.
 「自由とはいったい何であろうか。一口にいえば自分の良心に従って生きることである」
 「私たちはどんな考えを持ってもよい」「どんな会合をやっても、どんな団体をつくっても自由である」
 これは、いまの憲法が施行された69年前のきょう、憲法普及会(芦田均会長)が全国の家庭向けに2千万部発行した小冊子「新しい憲法 明るい生活」が説明する「自由」だ。

“For a long time, even our basic freedoms have been restricted. We had been desperately wishing for greater freedom. Now, our wish has been realized,” said the booklet, which was awash with phrases and expressions that reflected the joy of being freed from the oppression of the wartime militarist government.
 「長い間私たちには、その自由さえも制限されていた。私たちは何とかしてもっと自由がほしいと願っていた。いまその願いが果(はた)されたのである」。冊子には、戦時下の息苦しさからの解放感に満ちた言葉が並ぶ。

The preamble to the Constitution declares that the authority of government is derived from the people and its powers are exercised by the representatives of the people, while its benefits are enjoyed by the people. These principles of popular sovereignty and representative democracy are “universal principles” that have been established through popular uprisings in modern times, such as the French Revolution.
 国政の権威は国民に由来し、権力は国民の代表者が行使し、その福利は国民が受け取る――。憲法前文が明記するこの主権在民と代表民主制の原理は、フランス革命など近代の市民革命によって獲得された「人類普遍の原理」だ。

Japan's postwar social system has been defined by the Constitution that took effect nearly seven decades ago.
 70年近くがたち、新たな社会のしくみは戦後日本に定着した。

Unfortunately, the government has shown signs of wanting to put certain limits on the freedom of individuals and impose specific values on the citizens of this country.
ただ一方で、国家が個人の自由に枠をはめたり、特定の価値観を押しつけたりしようとする動きがちらつき始めた。

AMENDMENT OF EDUCATION LAW
 ■改憲のさきがけか

That trend emerged 10 years ago.
 10年前にさかのぼる。

The Fundamental Law of Education, which also took effect in 1947 and was touted as the “constitution of education,” was revised for the first time from start to finish.
 憲法と同じ年に施行され、「教育の憲法」と言われた教育基本法が、初めて、そして全文が改正された。

When he came to power in 2006 with a pledge to “unshackle Japan from the postwar regime,” Prime Minister Shinzo Abe made revision of the education law a policy priority for his first tenure.
「戦後レジームからの脱却」を掲げて政権についたばかりの安倍首相が、最重要課題としていた。

The revised Fundamental Law of Education stipulates, along with respect for individuals and other countries, a set of moral standards as “goals of education.” These standards are aimed at helping students develop a commitment to “love their nation and native land” and “contribute to the development of society with public-mindedness.”
 「我が国と郷土を愛する」「公共の精神に基づき、社会の発展に寄与する」。改正法には、個人や他国の尊重に加え、こうした態度を養うという道徳規範が「教育の目標」として列挙された。

The provisions of the law with regard to the relationship between the government’s education policy and schools and teachers were also rewritten to place greater emphasis on “public” than on “individuals.” Critics said the principal objective of the law changed from defining the role of the government in education to instructing the people about education.
教育行政と学校現場との関係にかかわる条文も改められ、「個」よりも「公」重視、行政を律する法から国民に指図する法へとその性格が変わった、といわれた。

Back then, Abe told the Diet that revising the law would not lead to tighter state control on education.
 安倍首相は当時、教育基本法を改正しても「国家管理を強めることにはならない」と国会で答弁していた。

But since he returned to power in 2012 after spending the intervening period as an opposition lawmaker, Abe has rolled out a series of education policy measures based on the “spirit of the revised Fundamental Law of Education,” which he has eagerly promoted.
ところが、下野をへて政権に復帰した安倍氏は、「改正教育基本法の精神」を前面に掲げ、新たな教育政策を次々と繰り出している。

The most symbolic initiative of his new education policy concerns the rules for school textbook screenings and authorization by the government.
 その最たるものが、教科書検定の新しいルールだ。

The new rules allow the government to disqualify textbooks that have “serious flaws” from the viewpoint of the “goals of education” set out by the revised law.
改正法で新たに盛り込まれた「教育の目標」に照らし「重大な欠陥」があれば不合格にできる。

They also give the government the authority to demand that descriptions in textbooks match the official position on issues raised.
政府見解がある事柄には、それに基づいた記述を求める。

This year, the rules have been applied to the screening of high school textbooks for the first time. As a result, descriptions about topics such as postwar reparations and the government’s decision to allow Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense, on which the nation has been divided, reflect the Abe administration’s claims and arguments concerning these issues.
 高校の教科書に初めて適用された今年の検定では、戦後補償や世論が割れる集団的自衛権の行使容認などで、政権の主張が反映された記述になった。

The education minister has called on national universities to ensure that the national flag is hoisted and the national anthem is sung at ceremonies. This request, which raise questions about academic freedom and university autonomy, was prompted by Abe’s remarks at the Diet that these matters should be dealt with appropriately in line with the principles of the Fundamental Law of Education.
 また、文科相による国立大への「国旗・国歌」の要請は、学問の自由や大学の自治にかかわる問題だが、そのきっかけは「教育基本法の方針にのっとって正しく実施されるべきだ」との首相の国会答弁だった。

STATE PLAYING A MORE ASSERTIVE ROLE
 ■前面にせり出す国家

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party announced a new draft Constitution in 2012 that echoes the goals of the revised Fundamental Law of Education.
 自民党が12年にまとめた憲法改正草案は、改正教育基本法のめざす方向と一致する。

The draft is designed to allow the government to play an excessively assertive role. In contrast, the freedoms and rights of individuals are de-emphasized.
 草案では国家が過剰なまでに前面にせり出す。後退するのは個人の自由や権利だ。

The draft’s preamble says the purpose of establishing a new Constitution is to “hand down good traditions and our nation to all posterity.”
 草案前文の憲法制定の目的は「良き伝統と我々の国家を末永く子孫に継承するため」だ。

This stands in sharp contrast to the preamble to the current Constitution, which refers to the people’s determination to secure liberty and renounce war.
現憲法の「自由の確保」や「不戦」とは様変わりだ。

The LDP’s draft Constitution also says “the Japanese people shall defend their nation and native land with pride and resolve and, while respecting basic human rights, shall also respect harmony and help form a nation through mutual help between family members and all members of society.”
 また、「日本国民は、国と郷土を誇りと気概を持って自ら守り、基本的人権を尊重するとともに、和を尊び、家族や社会全体が互いに助け合って国家を形成する」と規定する。

At the same time, Article 12 of the document says the people’s freedoms and rights shall be exercised “always in ways that don’t go against the interests of the public or undermine public order.”
 一方で、国民の自由や権利の行使には「常に公益及び公の秩序に反してはならない」(12条)との枠をはめている。

The ruling party wants to ensure that the Constitution not only reflects the principles of constitutionalism but also Japan’s “national character,” Yosuke Isozaki, a former special adviser to Abe, once said.
 「憲法は立憲主義だけでなく、国柄をきちんと反映したものにもしたい」(礒崎陽輔前首相補佐官)というのが党の考えだ。

But specific values and ideals should not be imposed on citizens by the Constitution, no matter how many people think they have the moral high ground.
だが、たとえどんなに多くの人が「道徳的に正しい」と考える内容であっても、憲法によってすべての国民に強いるべきものではない。

Teruyuki Hirota, a professor of educational sociology at Nihon University who is well versed in education issues in Japan, warns that such political intervention is inherently dangerous.
 教育現場に詳しい広田照幸・日大教授は、政治の動きを踏まえて警鐘を鳴らす。

“A political desire to guide children toward a certain way of life through education could be directed at the entire nation through a constitutional amendment,” he says.
「『こういう生き方をさせたい』という教育の場での政治的欲望が、こんどは憲法改正を通じて国民全体にふってくるかもしれない」

UNACCEPTABLE POLICY OBJECTIVES
 ■押しつけは筋違い

The question is whether individuals exist for the nation or the nation exists for individuals.
In his book “Atarashii Kuni-e” (toward a new nation), Abe addresses this issue.
 個人あっての国家か、国家あっての個人か。安倍首相は、自著でこう述べている。

“It is the nation that guarantees the freedom of individuals. If this function (of the nation) is stopped by another nation’s rule, it is obvious that the people’s fundamental rights will be restricted.”
 「個人の自由を担保しているのは国家なのである。それらの機能が他国の支配によって停止させられれば、天賦の権利が制限されてしまうのは自明であろう」(『新しい国へ』)

It is the role of the state to protect its people from attacks by another state. But that doesn’t give the government the right to impose its ideals and vision for the nation and the way of life on the people with whom sovereign power resides as elements of Japan’s “national character.”
 他国の攻撃から国民を守るのは国家の役割だ。かといって権力が理想とする国家像や生き方を、「国柄だから」と主権者に押しつけるのは筋が違う。

Allowing the government to do so would be tantamount to reversing the wheel of history in postwar Japan where the “universal principles” have been so firmly entrenched in its society.
 それを許してしまえば、「普遍の原理」を社会に根付かせてきた歴史の歩みを、後戻りさせることになる。
posted by srachai at 08:57| Comment(0) | 朝日英字

2016年05月03日

シリア情勢 停戦維持へ外交努力を強めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Diplomatic efforts must be expedited to maintain truce in war-torn Syria
シリア情勢 停戦維持へ外交努力を強めよ

The ceasefire between Syrian President Bashar Assad’s administration and rebel groups, generally observed by both sides for more than two months, is on the brink of collapse.
 シリアのアサド政権と反体制派が2か月余りにわたって、概おおむね順守してきた停戦合意が、崩壊の瀬戸際にある。

Fighting has resumed in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo and elsewhere. Rebel groups are increasingly angered by the government, saying that a number of civilians had been killed by Syrian airstrikes, which they say is a violation of the truce. It is reported that food and medical supplies are not reaching the needed because of obstructive activities.
 シリア北部アレッポなどで戦闘が再燃した。反体制派は「シリア軍の空爆で多くの民間人が死亡した。停戦違反だ」と反発を強めている。食料や医療物資の供給も妨害されているという。

The Assad administration has refuted these arguments, saying the bombings were justifiable attacks on terrorist groups such as the Nusra Front not covered by the ceasefire.
 政権は、停戦が適用されないテロ組織「ヌスラ戦線」などに対する正当な攻撃だと反論する。

Under the circumstances, the possibility of seeing an end to the five-year civil war could become even more remote. Relevant countries must expedite their diplomatic efforts to mediate between the two parties.
 5年に及ぶ内戦の終結がさらに遠のきかねない事態だ。関係国は仲介外交を急がねばならない。

Supported by Russian airstrikes, the Assad administration has a military advantage over the opposition groups. Spurred on by this, the government forcibly held parliamentary elections in Damascus and elsewhere. Assad may have sought to emphasize the ruling party’s overwhelming victory, thereby keeping his administration in place. Given that votes were cast only in government-held parts of the country, however, he cannot gain legitimacy.
 アサド政権は、ロシアの空爆支援を受けて軍事的優位に立った。その勢いで首都ダマスカスなどで国会選を強行した。与党圧勝をアピールし、政権を存続させる狙いだろうが、限られた支配地域での投票では正統性は得られまい。

The Assad administration and the rebel groups are to promote peace talks and establish a caretaker government. This is to be followed by a presidential election and other steps to launch a new administration. This is a road map for ending the civil war. The U.N. Security Council also has adopted a resolution calling for the implementation of this process.
 アサド政権と反体制派が和平協議を進め、移行政権を樹立する。そのうえで、大統領選などを実施し、新政権を発足させる。これが内戦終結の道筋である。国連安全保障理事会も、この行程表の履行を決議で要求している。

Ceasefire key to weaken ISIL

It is extremely disturbing that the negotiators from both sides have been unable to come up with any compromise regarding calls for Assad’s immediate resignation. In the wake of the renewed fighting, the rebel groups have announced to suspend their participation in the peace talks. We feel they lack the will to end the civil war.
 深刻なのは、交渉当事者間でアサド大統領の即時退陣を巡って、妥協点を見いだせないことだ。反体制派は戦闘再燃に伴って、和平協議への参加を停止すると表明した。内戦を終わらせる意志が欠けているのではないか。

The U.N. special envoy for Syria, who presides over the talks, had good reason to urge the United States, Russia and other related nations to hold an urgent ministerial-level meeting.
 協議を主宰する国連特使が、米露など関係国に閣僚級緊急会合の開催を呼びかけたのは当然だ。

It is also worrying to note that, after withdrawing some of its airborne units from Syria, Russia has continued its intervention in the country, including the deployment of artillery.
 ロシアがシリアから空軍部隊を一部撤収した後、火砲配備などの軍事介入を継続していることも懸念される。

A Russian warplane recently flew dangerously close to a U.S. military aircraft over the Baltic Sea and another Russian plane came extremely close to a U.S. destroyer in the same sea − both incidents only heightening tensions in the area. This will only add to U.S. mistrust of Russia.
露軍機がバルト海で米軍機や米駆逐艦に異常接近し、緊張を高めているのは、米国の不信感を強めるだけである。

It is essential for Russia to exert influence on the Assad administration while the United States does so on the opposition groups, thereby urging the two sides to maintain the ceasefire and make progress in the peace talks.
 ロシアはアサド政権に、米国は反体制派に、それぞれ影響力を行使し、停戦維持と和平協議の進展を促すことが肝要だ。

It should not be forgotten that achieving peace in Syria would mark a step toward weakening the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militant group and overcoming the refugee problem.
シリア和平が過激派組織「イスラム国」の弱体化や難民問題の打開への一歩となることを忘れてはならない。

U.S. President Barack Obama recently decided to send an additional 250 commandos and other U.S. service members to Syria. He also met Saudi Arabia’s King Salman to try to mend soured ties between their countries. These moves should be used to shore up the Syrian rebels in their fight against ISIL, while also facilitating cooperative relations among pertinent nations.
 オバマ米大統領は、特殊部隊など米兵250人のシリア増派を決めた。サウジアラビアのサルマン国王とも会談し、冷え込んでいた関係の修復に努めた。「イスラム国」と戦う反体制派の強化や関係国の協調につなげたい。

In top-level talks, five nations − the United States, Britain, France, Germany and Italy − have confirmed their coordination in response to acts of terrorism and dealing with the refugee issue. These problems will also be addressed as important themes at the Ise-Shima Group of Seven summit meeting later this month. Japan will be required to demonstrate leadership in this respect.
 米英仏独伊の5か国は首脳会談で、テロ対策や難民対応での連携を確認した。今月下旬の主要国首脳会議(伊勢志摩サミット)で引き続き重要な議題となる。日本の指導力の発揮が求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 2, 2016)
posted by srachai at 06:42| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2016年05月02日

日中外相会談 関係停滞の主因は習政権では

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Is Xi’s administration not responsible for strains in Japan-China relations?
日中外相会談 関係停滞の主因は習政権では

Can the latest talks between the Japanese and Chinese foreign ministers serve as the first step in improving bilateral relations?
 日中関係を改善する一歩となるのだろうか。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida met with his Chinese counterpart, Wang Yi, on Saturday during a visit to China. The top diplomats confirmed that the two countries are “partners for cooperation,” while also agreeing that they will make efforts to move bilateral ties forward.
 岸田外相が中国を訪問し、王毅外相と会談した。両国が「協力のパートナー」であることを確認し、両国関係の前進に向けて双方が努力することで一致した。

Kishida’s visit to China is the first by a Japanese foreign minister in 4½ years for an event other than an international conference. Saturday’s talks lasted for about four hours and 20 minutes, including a luncheon.
 国際会議出席以外で、日本の外相が訪中したのは4年半ぶりだ。会談は、昼食会も含め、計約4時間20分にも及んだ。

We welcome the resumption of top-level talks − which had not been held for an extended period − between the two countries and the exchange of candid views on various issues.
長く途絶えていた本格的な政治対話を再開し、様々な議題について率直に意見交換したこと自体は評価できる。

Kishida also met with Premier Li Keqiang, who referred to Japan-China relations by saying, “I hope that we will work together to get them back on the right track once again.”
 岸田氏は李克強首相とも会談した。李氏は、日中関係について「もう一度、正常な軌道に戻れるように、共に取り組むことを望んでいる」と語った。

Japan aims to host trilateral summit meetings of the leaders and foreign ministers from Japan, China and South Korea in the latter half of this year. Tokyo has improved its relations with Seoul by reaching a deal on the issue of so-called comfort women, but Chinese President Xi Jinping’s administration is reportedly reluctant to hold the summit.
 日本は今年後半、日中韓3か国の首脳・外相会談を主催したい考えだ。慰安婦問題の合意で日韓関係は改善したが、中国の習近平政権は開催に消極的とされる。

Japan and China should make steady efforts to coordinate the schedule for the summit, in addition to the schedule for high-level economic dialogue between ministers of the two countries after they agreed in November last year to hold such talks at the earliest possible date.
 昨年11月に早期開催で合意した閣僚級の日中ハイレベル経済対話とともに、両国で日程調整を着実に進める必要がある。

Off the mark

Wang’s comments on Japan-China relations, however, were questionable. “The China-Japan relationship has suffered various setbacks, falling to a low ebb,” he said. “The Japanese side knows clear[ly] the reason behind that.”
His remarks suggested that only Japan should be blamed for the stagnated ties.
 疑問なのは、王氏が日中関係に関して「絶えずギクシャクし、たびたび谷間に陥ったが、原因は日本側が一番よく分かっているのではないか」と述べたことだ。関係停滞の責任が一方的に日本側にあるかのような主張である。

Wang made the remarks apparently with an eye on the statement issued at the recent meeting by the foreign ministers from the Group of Seven major powers, in which they implicitly called for China to refrain from building military bases in the South China Sea, even though they did not name the country.
 日米など先進7か国(G7)が4月の外相会合で、名指しは避けつつ、中国の南シナ海での軍事拠点作りに反対する声明を発表したことも念頭にあるようだ。

However, it is China that has been forcibly building artificial islands by ignoring international law, thus causing tensions with countries concerned. We consider Wang’s remarks to be off the mark.
 しかし、国際法を無視した人工島造成を強行し、関係国との緊張を作り出しているのは、中国の方だ。王氏の発言は筋が違う。

Wang also said, “Japan should stop spreading or echoing all kinds of ‘China threat’ or ‘China economic recession’ theories.” This remark should be described as nothing but unproductive defamation.
 王氏は「『中国脅威論』と『中国経済衰退論』をまき散らすべきではない」とも語った。非生産的な中傷と言うほかない。

Kishida expressed concerns over Beijing’s activity in the East and South China seas. It is important for Japan to patiently continue calling for China to restrain its self-serving maritime advances and abide by international rules.
 岸田氏は、東・南シナ海での中国の行動に懸念を伝えた。日本は今後も、中国に対し、独善的な海洋進出の自制や国際法の順守を粘り強く求めることが重要だ。

Japan and China have a leading role in promoting peace and prosperity in the world. Even though they have opposing opinions, the two countries should build constructive ties from a broad standpoint of a mutually beneficial relationship.
 日中両国は、世界の平和と繁栄を牽引けんいんすべき立場にある。意見対立があっても、「戦略的互恵」の大局に立ち、建設的な関係を構築せねばならない。

Kishida and Wang expressed “serious concerns” over North Korea, as it has continued ballistic missile launches and other military provocations. The two ministers also confirmed that their countries would cooperate to strictly enforce the U.N. Security Council’s sanctions resolution against Pyongyang.
 弾道ミサイル発射など軍事挑発を続ける北朝鮮について、両外相は「深刻な懸念」を表明した。国連安全保障理事会の制裁決議を厳格に履行する方針も確認した。

China holds the key to the amount of pressure that can be applied to North Korea. Japan should work closely with the United States and South Korea to call for Beijing to take productive action against Pyongyang.
 北朝鮮への圧力を強めるには、中国の対応がカギを握る。日本は米韓両国と緊密に連携し、中国に前向きな対応を促すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 1, 2016)
posted by srachai at 08:12| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2016年05月01日

香山リカのココロの万華鏡 : 今は自分を大切に /東京

April 24, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope: Take care of yourself first, no need to rush as aftershocks continue
香山リカのココロの万華鏡 : 今は自分を大切に /東京

In the massive earthquakes that have hit Kumamoto Prefecture and surrounding areas, many people have been killed or injured. Homes and other structures have collapsed, and roads have cracked or caved in.
 熊本県で起きた大地震。大勢の方が亡くなったり、けがをしたりした。建物の倒壊や道路のひび割れなども相次いだ。

One of the most unique characteristics of the latest disaster is the incredible number of ongoing aftershocks. No one can escape the ground on which they stand, so when it shakes, it can cause deep fear. Such circumstances can lead to anticipatory anxiety, a phenomenon in which people cannot get the fear that a temblor will strike again out of their heads, causing yet more anxiety. Some people are impacted and overwhelmed more by such anticipatory anxiety than by the actual earthquakes.
 また、今回の地震ではとくに余震が多いのが特徴だ。地震の揺れはどこに身を置いても避けることができないので、経験する人は強い恐怖を感じる。またいつ来るかもわからないことが「また起きるのでは」と常に心配が頭から離れない「予期不安」と呼ばれる特殊な状態を招くことがある。そうなると地震そのもの以上にこの「予期不安」ですっかり参ってしまう、ということにもなりかねない。

Among those who live outside the directly affected areas but have experienced major earthquakes themselves, seeing news reports and photos of the latest disaster can also trigger flashbacks, sometimes causing dizziness and headaches.
 また、被災地に住んでいなくても、今回の大地震のニュースや写真などを見ているうちに自分が経験した過去の大きな地震の記憶がよみがえり、めまいや頭痛などを感じた人がいるのではないか。一種の「フラッシュバック」と考えられる。

The Kumamoto Earthquake, therefore, has wrought psychological pain not only on those who live near the epicenter, but also to those who live far away. How, then, can we mitigate psychological damage from the disaster?
 このように今回の熊本地震は、被災地の方々にはもちろんだが、それ以外の人たちにもいろいろな形で心のダメージを与えたのではないかと思われる。
 では、どうすればそのダメージを少なくすることができるのか。

Some say that people need professional help, but I think it's too soon for that. What's important is to first secure a place where one can be as safe and as comfortable as possible. For example, if you're in an evacuation center, try to put up a wall to create some privacy between you and your neighbors, and stretch out your legs. People living outside the disaster areas should try not to overwork, and take time for nutritious meals and comforting baths, at least for the time being.
 「専門家の心のケアが必要」という意見もあるが、それはまだ早い。まず必要なのは自分の身の安全を確保して少しでもラクな状況に置くこと。たとえば避難所にいる人の場合は、なるべく早く隣の人との間に仕切りをもうけて、ゆっくり足を伸ばせるようにする。他の地域にいる人たちも、しばらくの間は仕事で無理をしない、食事や入浴に時間をかける、といったことを心がけたほうがよい。

And for now, put off thinking about why the earthquakes are happening, and try to regain a sense of normalcy by sticking to your routine when it comes to eating, sleeping and relaxing.
 そして「なぜ地震が起きたのか」などと考えるのはちょっと後まわしにして、まずはなるべくいつも通りの「食べる、寝る、くつろぐ」といった日常を取り戻すようにすること。

To protect yourself emotionally from various fears and anxieties, and to prevent the psychological effects of the disaster from becoming long-lasting, make self-care and keeping up a routine your top priority. Taking care of your body in turn helps take care of your mind and emotions.
さまざまな恐怖や不安から心を守り、その影響を長引かせないためにも「自分と暮らしを大切にすること」、これを何より優先させる。そうやって自分のからだをいたわることこそが実は何よりの心のケアにもなるのだ。

It will take the areas that have been hard hit by the quakes a long time to rebuild. Recovery will require assistance from across the country. That's why, for now, you must all take care of yourselves first. And once the emotional and physical energy depleted by the disaster has been replenished, can you stand up again and move forward. Urging survivors still in the midst of aftershocks, "Don't give up," or "Cheer up," may be important. But I'd also like to send the message to first, rest up. There is no need to rush.
 いったん被害を受けた地域は、復興までに長い時間がかかる。全国からの支援も必要になるだろう。だからこそ、いまはまず「自分を大切に」。そして、地震で傷ついたこころとからだにエネルギーが戻ったら、立ち上がって復興に向けて歩み出せばよい。とくに被災地に向けては「負けないで」「元気出して」とともに、「まずはゆっくり休んで」「急がなくていいのです」という声もかけたいと思う。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
posted by srachai at 08:22| Comment(0) | 毎日英字
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