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### L

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VKL̓esƂŁA\ɂ邱Ƃ\łB
posted by fanblog

## 2014N0815

### fco啝@񕜂̌㉟Kv

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Measures need to be taken to boost private consumption after tax hike
fco啝@񕜂̌㉟Kv

The decline in private consumption and other economic activity following the April 1 consumption tax hike has apparently been greater than initially expected.
@ŗグɔlȂǂ̗݂́Ȃz傫悤B

The government and the Bank of Japan must take all possible steps through their economic policies to prevent the adverse impact of the tax hike from continuing for a protracted period.
@ł̈e𒷈Ȃ悤A{Ɠ͌oϐ̂ɖSȂ΂ȂȂB

The nationfs real gross domestic product for the April-June period fell 1.7 percent from the previous quarter, marking the first decline in two quarters, according to Cabinet Office statistics released Wednesday.
@t{\SU̎Yifcoj́AOPEVƁAQlԂ̃}CiXɂȂB

The price-adjusted real GDP contracted 6.8 percent at an annualized rate in the fiscal first quarter. It was the biggest quarterly decline in the almost three years since the economy contracted markedly during January-March 2011, in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake in March that year.
NZłUEWƁA{kЂɂ闎݈ȗARNԂ̑啝ȌłB

Private consumption, which rose significantly in the previous quarter due to a last-minute surge in demand before the tax hike, fell 5 percent over the quarter under review. This was greater than the 3.5 percent drop posted during April-June 1997, when the consumption tax rate was raised in April that year.
@S̏őOɋ삯ݎvŐLтĺAOTƁAȌłPXXVNSÛRET傫ȃ}CiXB

Economic and Fiscal Policy Minister Akira Amari said, gThe effects of the backlash that followed the pre-tax-hike surge in demand are likely to wane gradually, and the economy is expected to stage a moderate recovery in the quarters to come,h indicating his bullish projections.
@×oύ͐sɂāAuɔ̉eAɂ₩ȌiC񕜂iށvƏqׁAČʂB

Nevertheless, it is worrisome that the pickup in personal spending is weak, with department store and new automobile sales remaining sluggish even after July.
@AVȍ~SݓX̔㍂VԔ̔̕sUȂǏ񕜂݂̂͋C肾B

Consumers may have been tightening their purse strings not only because of the tax hike, but also due to general price increases caused by the weakened yen and the rising price of crude oil.
@ł̉ełȂA~⌴ɂ镨㏸āA҂̍z̃qłȂĂ̂ł͂ȂB

Guard against slowdown

As capital investment by private companies also remains weak, there appears to be no engine for boosting domestic demand. Vigilance against an economic slowdown must be reinforced.
@ݔᒲŁÂȂBiCւ̌x߂KvB

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is set to decide this year whether to proceed with a further increase in the consumption tax from 8 percent to 10 percent, currently slated for October 2015. He will likely need to clearly observe economic trends.
@{񑊂͔NɂAQOPTNPOɏŗ\ʂWPOɈグ邩ǂfBoϓ𒍈Ӑ[ɂ߂邱ƂɂȂ낤B

Economic measures formulated last December to ease the adverse impact of the consumption tax hike have not yielded sufficient positive effects, as there have been delays in public works projects due to labor shortages at construction sites and the soaring price of construction materials. Smooth implementation of these projects is needed.
@ł̉eɘâߍNPQɍ肳ꂽoϑ΍́A݌̐ls⎑ލ̂ŌHxA܂\Ȍʂ\ĂȂBƂ̉~Ȏs߂B

The mismatch between employersf needs and job seekersf skills in the labor market must be eliminated by improving vocational training, while measures should be taken to prevent the shortage of needed manpower from having further ill effects.
@EƌP̏[ȂǂŋEƋl̃~X}b𑣐iAls̕QghB

It is also important for the government to steadily carry out its growth strategy, including the lowering of the effective corporate tax rate and the easing of regulations.
@@lŎŗ̈KɘaȂǁA헪̒Ȏs؂B

It is desirable to reinforce such trends, as reinvigorated corporate activity would lead to wage hikes, which in turn would stimulate personal spending.
Ɗ̊㏸ɂȂAh闬߂B

Soaring electricity rates will also hinder economic growth. As the restart of its nuclear power plant has been delayed, Hokkaido Electric Power Co. has applied for a second round of rate hikes, involving increases of about 20 percent.
@d͗̍̏dƂȂBq͔d̍ĉғxĂ邽߁AkCd͖͂Q̍Ēlグ\B

Other power companies, including Kansai Electric Power Co., have shown signs of following suit.
֐d͂Ȃǂǐ̍\B

The Nuclear Regulation Authority should conduct its safety examinations of nuclear power plants efficiently, and those plants whose safety has been confirmed should be allowed to steadily restart.
@q͋Kψ̐RIɐi߁ASmFł璅ɍĉғׂB

Even though the yen has settled into a lower value, the nationfs exports have remained sluggish. We wonder if the nationfs earning power through foreign trade has weakened.
@~蒅Ă̂ɁAAo̕sUĂB{́u҂́vቺĂȂB

The public and private sectors must join hands to quickly boost the international competitiveness of industries and analyze structural problems with the economy, including the hollowing-out of industries.
@ĎYƋ͂̋ɎgނƂƂɁAYƋ󓴉ȂǍ\Iȗv͂̕}Ȃ΂ȂȂB

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 14, 2014)
posted by srachai at 06:27| Comment(0) | ǔp

## 2014N0814

### ViC@ɒ𑣂

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Keep pressure on Beijing to freeze provocations in South China Sea
ViC@ɒ𑣂

Antagonism has become more conspicuous over the South China Sea between China and a group of countries including Japan and the United States.
@ViCėȂǂƒ̑ΗAwNɂȂB

This could be observed at the recent ASEAN Regional Forum in Myanmar, where foreign ministers and officials from 27 countries and organizations gathered to discuss security issues. They included Japan, the United States, China and the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
@ĒⓌAWAAirdmjȂǂQVE@\̊O炪SۏbrdmntH[iqejA~}[ŊJꂽB

The focal topic at the meeting was South China Sea affairs, including the territorial dispute between China and Vietnam over the Paracel Islands.
@œ_́ApZ̗̗L钆ƃxgȋΗ͂߂ƂViCB

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry called on the countries concerned to put a voluntary freeze on provocative actions. His idea of resolving disputes peacefully through negotiations after easing tensions was supported by the Philippines.
@P[č́Asׂ̎Iȓ𓖎ɌĂтBْɘaAŖ𕽘aIɉƂ̍lŁAtBsB

The current regional tensions have been caused by Chinafs self-righteous actions such as carrying out reclamation work to build facilities and drilling for oil in disputed waters. If such provocative actions are suspended, it would help in making arrangements for negotiations.
@ْ݂̋̌́AWCł̐Ζ@▄ߗĂɂ{݌݂ȂǁA̓ƑPIsBsׂ΁Ac̊𐮂̂ɗL낤B

Stressing the importance of the principle of gthe rule of law,h Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida expressed opposition to the use of force and coercion as well as the importance for resolving disputes peacefully.
@ݓcÓAu@̎xzv̌ƂƂɁA͂̍sgЈւ̔΁AaIȖ̏dviB

The root cause of the problems was that China has been insisting on territorial rights with no grounds in international law and trying to expand its effective rule with the backing of its military might. Kishidafs statements could be intended to check such movements by China. Assertions similar to Kishidafs have been made successively by the representatives of other countries.
@̍́Aۖ@̍Ȃ̗L咣AR͂wiɎxz̊g}Ă邱ƂBݓc̔͒ւ̌񂹂łAl̎咣ƂB

In response, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi presented a plan to work together with the ASEAN toward early establishment of a legally binding code of conduct in the South China Sea.
@ɑ΂ẢBÓA@IȍS͂ViCsK͂̑ArdmƐi߂jB

Shared interests at stake

It is, of course, desirable to work out a code of conduct aimed at ensuring peace and stability in the South China Sea. But it is suspected that Chinafs real intention could be to eliminate U.S. involvement in the sea while buying time by promoting talks on a code of conduct.
@ViC̕aƈڎwsK͖͂̍_A]܂BA̖{́AK͍Łuԉ҂vAč̊֗^r邱Ƃł͂ȂB

If that is the case, Chinafs proposal on a code of conduct cannot be endorsed, as freedom of navigation and other interests of the whole international community are at stake.
@Ȃ΁Aqs̎RȂǂ͍ێЉŜ̗vɊւłȏAeFłȂB

We should pay heed to Chinafs increasing moves to divide ASEAN into pro- and anti-China groups by wielding its economic clout.
@ӂKvȂ̂́Aoϗ͂gArdm̕fH߂Ă邱ƂB

China has been providing assistance to Cambodia and Laos in connection with their infrastructure development projects in the Mekong River area. Beijing has also offered an economic cooperation plan to the Thai military regime that took power in a May coup.
@J{WA⃉IXɂ́AR여̎Љ{JƂȂǂxĂBTɃN[f^[N^CRɂAoϋ͍B

It is cause for worry that Thailand has quickly declared its support for a China-led plan to establish an Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.
@哱́uAWACtsv\zɃ^Cx\̂͋C肾B

The joint statement of the ASEAN foreign ministersf meeting held ahead of the ARF expressed gserious concernh about the South China Sea issue.
@qeɐ旧rdmOc̋́AViCɁu[ȌOv\B

In the process of drafting the statement, Cambodia among others reportedly opposed a Philippine proposal to call for a gfreeze on provocative actions.h Chinafs diplomatic maneuvering has thus had certain results.
@̈ĕł́AJ{WAȂǂAusׂ̓v߂tBsĂɔ΂ƂB̍H͈̐ʂグĂB

To prevent China from forcibly changing the status quo in the South China Sea, Japan and the United States must beef up cooperation with not only ASEAN member nations but also their neighboring countries such as Australia and India.
@ė́AɂViCł́u͂̌ύXvȂ߁Ardme͂ƂABAChȂǎӍƂ̘Ag߂KvB

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 12, 2014)
posted by srachai at 06:33| Comment(0) | ǔp

## 2014N0813

### iАj픚nƎ񑊁@ts蓾ʔjւ̓

August 11, 2014
EDITORIAL: Japan must pursue a path to a nuclear-free world
iАj픚nƎ񑊁@ts蓾ʔjւ̓

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Hiroshima and Nagasaki this month, both of which marked the 69th anniversaries of the atomic bombings. In the ceremonies in both cities, he emphasized determination to realize a world without nuclear weapons.
@UXN̍LA{WO񑊂KꂽBTł́uĵȂEvƂ̌ӂB

However, it seems that the gap between Abe and the cities that were struck by atomic bombs has increased since last year.
@A픚nƂ̍a͍N[܂悤ɌB

In a meeting with Abe in Hiroshima, 85-year-old hibakusha Yukio Yoshioka said, g(The Cabinetfs approval of the exercise of the right to collective self-defense) will make Japan a country that repeats its (past) mistake and can wage a war.h
@u߂JԂA푈̂ł鍑ɂ̂vBLŎ񑊂ƍk픚҂̋gKYiWTj͌B

Miyako Jodai, 75, who served as the representative of atomic bomb survivors in the ceremony in Nagasaki, said, gI want the government not to forget or deny the sufferings of atomic bomb survivors.h
̎TŔ픚ґ\𖱂߂i\qi傤݂₱jiVTj́u픚҂̋ꂵ݂YAȂƂɂȂŁvƗ͂߂B

They apparently demanded that Abe withdraw the Cabinetfs approval of the exercise of the right to collective self-defense.
@ƂɁAWcIq̍sgF߂tc̓P񑊂ɋ߂̂B

DIFFERENT FROM DESIRES
@dȂȂ肢

There are also other causes of concern.
@Oޗ͂قɂB

One is the exports of nuclear power generation infrastructure to emerging countries. Another is negotiations to conclude a nuclear power agreement with India, which has conducted nuclear tests without joining the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Both could lead to nuclear proliferation.
@Vւ̌AoAjsgUimosjɉɊjChƂ̌q͋ccBǂjgUɂȂ鋰ꂪʂȂB

The Abe administration also plans to maintain the policy of removing plutonium from spent nuclear fuels and reusing it in nuclear power plants.
@{́AvgjEgpς݊jRVɎoČŗp鐭jB

After the March 2011 nuclear disaster in Fukushima Prefecture, the future of nuclear power generation remains unclear. In addition, Japan already holds stocks of more than 40 tons of plutonium whose use has yet to be decided. Anti-nuclear groups in Japan and abroad suspect that Japan has the intention of arming itself with nuclear weapons.
@ł̑厖̂̂ƁA̖sȂ܂܂B{́Apv߂ȂSOgȏ̃vgjE̍݌ɂĂBO̔jĉȂǂ́Auj̈Ӑ}̂ł́vƂԂB

Why are the moves of the government of A-bombed Japan so different from the desires for anti-nuclear policies?
@픚ł{̐{̓ȂAقǂ܂łɔj̊肢ƏdȂȂ̂B

In cities that were devastated by the atomic bombs, Abe asked the people to understand the Cabinetfs approval of the exercise of the right to collective self-defense by repeatedly saying, gIt is to protect the lives and livelihoods of the people.h
@{񑊂͔픚nŁu̖ƕ炵邽߂vƌJԂAWcIq̍sgeFɗ߂B

The governmentfs basic stance is as follows: Chinafs military power is conspicuously increasing. North Korea is not halting its nuclear and missile development. The security environment surrounding Japan is becoming harsher. Therefore, the series of policies is preparation for a variety of threats.
@̌RI䓪ڗAkN͊jE~TCJ߂ȂB{̈Sۏ͌ȂĂAA̐͑lȋЂւ̔Ƃ̂Å{pB

CONTRADICTIONS OF POLICIES
@̖[

It is said that in Northeast Asia, nuclear deterrence is effective because some countries continued to possess nuclear
weapons even after the end of the Cold War. Therefore, the governmentfs policy of depending on the U.S. nuclear umbrella is unshakable.
@jЂ߂Aj}~͂̂Ƃ̂kAWAB
̂߁Ač́uj̎PvɗƂjh邪ȂB

If concerned countries only rely on nuclear weapons, however, the era of risking catastrophe by nuclear war will continue. China, Russia and North Korea will heighten their alarm against the strengthening of the Japan-U.S. alliance based on nuclear weapons. As a result, gthe lives and the livelihoods of the peopleh will be endangered.
@A֌WjɈˑ΂ł́Aj푈ɂjŃXNw܂܂̎オBj厲ɐē̋ɁA⃍VAAkNx߁Au̖ƕ炵vtɊ낤Ȃ肩˂ȂB

However, the Abe administration is taking no action to drastically minimize the role of nuclear weapons and positively reduce the risk of the nuclear age.
@Ƃ낪{ɂ́Auj̖v傫ቺAj̃XNϋɓIɏĂ悤ȔMsȂB

There are many cases that run counter to nuclear disarmament. One is the missile defense (MD) system, which is being jointly developed by Japan and the United States at present.
@jRkɋts悤Ȏ́ABƂ΁AċŊJi߂~TChqilcjVXeB

The United States puts expectations on Japanfs exercise of the right to collective self-defense on the grounds that the exercise will lead to the strengthening of the MD system. That is because the Abe administration says that it plans to make it possible for Japan to shoot down ballistic missiles targeting the U.S. mainland or warships under the interpretation of the Constitution.
@č͏WcIq̍sgAlc̋ɂȂƊҊBĖ{y͑D_e~TC{ƂƂA@ߏ͔F߂悤ɂAƈ{Ă邽߂B

Irrespective of whether it is technologically possible to shoot down the missiles, China and Russia are opposed to the strengthening of the MD system, saying that their nuclear deterrence will be weakened. China could also use the strengthening of the MD system as an excuse to increase its nuclear capabilities in order to break the defense network of Japan and the United States.
@ZpIɉ\ǂ͂ƂA⃍VÁuj}~͂ȂvƂlcɔBhqԂ˔j悤ƁAj͑̌ɎgB

Abe also supports the possibility of the Self-Defense Forces sweeping for mines in the Strait of Hormuz. But the potential to do so could irritate Iran and adversely affect multinational talks to halt the countryfs nuclear development. As a result, Japan could lose its influence on Iran.
@{񑊂́AzYCŎq@ɂ邱Ƃ\ɂȂƂ̍lĂBꂪChĊjJhԋcɈeyڂACւ̓{̔͂˂ȂB

It is important to take the threats seriously. But it is impossible to continue the vicious cycle of gpower against powerh forever. What policies will the Abe administration take to prevent the acceleration of nuclear power expansion and nuclear proliferation and stabilize the international society and Northeast Asia? The policies are unclear. Therefore, people in cities that were victimized by the atomic bombs are feeling anxiety.
@Ђ̂͑؂Au͂ɂ͗́vł̈zƑ킯ɂ͂ȂB{́AjRgjgỦǂhōێЉkAWÄ͂̂BȂƂA픚n̕s̍ɂB

It is Japanfs role to show a vision of steadily promoting arms control of the entire Northeast Asian region and stabilizing it.
@ӒnŜ̌RǗ𒅎ɐi߁A}BrWƂ́A{ɋ߂łB

TRUST AND DIALOGUE
@MƑΘbo_

In the Hiroshima Peace Declaration, Mayor Kazumi Matsui called for the establishment of ga new security system based on trust and dialogue.h
@uMƑΘbɂSۏ̎dg݂ÂvBLs͕a錾őiB

In the world, the Obama administration is losing its centripetal force, and its relations with Russia have cooled due to the Ukrainian situation. Chinafs maritime advances have intensified friction with neighboring countries. The road to the gnew security system based on trust and dialogueh is steep. But is it just a dream?
@E΁Ač̃Io}͋S͂ቺAENCiŃVAƂ̊֌W₦񂾁B̊CmióAߗׂƂ̖C߂ĂBuMƑΘbɂSۏvւ̓͌BAꂾ낤B

The Nagasaki Peace Declaration this year again advocated an idea of establishing gnuclear-weapon-free zones.h In the proposal, Japan and the Korean Peninsula are denuclearized, and nuclear powers promise not to attack the areas with nuclear weapons.
@̕a錾͍NAkAWAɔjnт\zfB{ƒNjAjۗL͂jUȂƖ񑩂B

The Japanese government is negative to the idea on the grounds that relations of trust, which serve as a prerequisite, do not exist in the areas partly because North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear tests. North Korea counters the view, saying that what is a threat is the U.S. nuclear umbrella.
@kNjJԂȂǁAOƂȂM֌WȂAƓ{{͏ɓIBkŃAč̊j̎PЂƔ_B

Relations of trust will be established through dialogue. To realize the nuclear-weapon-free zones, Japan should first show its intentions to set up the zones and leave the U.S. nuclear umbrella. Then, it should urge the United States to accept the zones. After that, showing a joint goal, Japan should strongly urge North Korea to take part in the negotiations.
@M֌ẂAΘbʂč\zĂ̂낤B{܂jnѐݒuƁAj̎PEpɌӎvAłčɓBʂ̖ڕWfAkNɋQ𔗂Ă͂ǂB

The improvement of relations with China is also indispensable. A council of experts from five countries in the Asia and Pacific region, including former Australian Foreign Minister Gareth Evans, asked Japan and China to hold a summit meeting in its proposal compiled in Hiroshima.
@Ƃ̊֌WPsBGoYOAAWAmTJ̗L҉c͍Lł܂Ƃ߂񌾂ŁAɎ]kĂтB

It is not easy to untangle a thread. Unless there is a dialogue, however, nothing will start.
@ꂽق̂͗eՂł͂ȂBAΘbȂ΁AȂɂn܂ȂB

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 10
posted by srachai at 07:25| Comment(0) | p

## 2014N0812

### RJ̃RR̖؋:dSȂ΁@^

July 13, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Respect and a bit of consideration
RJ̃RR̖؋:dSȂ΁@^

There happens to be a charity event in Japan that I have held alongside figures including the young monk Daiki Nakashita, who is known for activities to prevent people from dying alone. A central part of this event is a talk including author Karin Amamiya, Makoto Yuasa, who is known for anti-poverty activities, and Yasuyuki Shimizu, who is involved in work to curb suicide.
@uǗvh芈ȂǂŒmႫm̒ƌpčsĂeB[CxgBƂ̉J{zAn̊Œm铒󐽂AE΍􊈓̐NVƂ̃g[NSB

This time, we decided to invite a guest: Masaaki Odaka, a specialist in neurological and internal medicine at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital in Fukushima Prefecture.
@̓QXgĂڂƂƂɂȂA쑊nsa@̐_oȈE鏹ɗĂB^CǵuɈԋ߂a@vBꂪ܂ɏ鎁̐EȂ̂B

Using lots of photos, Odaka described the situation at his hospital and the state of recovery in Minamisoma, one of the areas hit hard by the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and the ensuing nuclear disaster.
@̎ʐ^gĕa@̌A쑊ns̗̕lqȂǂȂA

"I don't want people to forget Fukushima, but at the same time, it's a problem for people to deliberately stress the dangers of radiation, because that's where we've decided to live," he said.

So what kind of stance should people who live in other areas take?
ł͊O̐lԂ́Aǂԓx΂悢̂낤B

"They should realize that people are living there and be considerate in what they say," Odaka says with a smile.
̓_ɂď鎁́uZłlƑzAtȂǂɔzĂ΂łvƏΊŏqׂB

"That makes sense," I thought. "If I say such and such, what will the other party think? If I were in their shoes, how would I feel?" Taking this kind of approach, we can become naturally considerate in our choice of words.
@ȂقǁAƎvBu܂Aꂽ͂ǂvȁBǂ邩ȁvƑz΁ARɌt̑Iѕɂz܂͂B

It's not simply a case of being able to make up guidelines which tell us, "This word is all right; that one isn't."
u̒P̓I[P[vu̓_vȂǂƃKChC悤Ȃ̂ł͂ȂB

Recently, more people struggle to perform the simple tasks of thinking about how the other person feels and being appropriately considerate.
@ŋ߁AűCzvuĔzvƂAƂĂVvȂƂȐlĂB

When I went to a bookstore, I was surprised to see a corner of books that listed up the problems and faults of other countries, criticizing them and making fun of them with strong language.
XɍsƁA{ȊO̍̌__˂āAŔ΂̂ɂ肷悤Ȗ{̃R[i[łĂċB

If I went overseas and visited a bookstore only to find books that heaped abuse on Japan, how would I feel?
OɏoAXɁu{̂̂{vłǂvB

Picturing this kind of situation should produce a level of consideration for the other party, even when saying something that needs to be said firmly.
zĂ݂΁AƂBRijƂČׂƂ͌ꍇłւ̈̔z܂͂ł͂ȂB

Some people might respond, "The other party pays no consideration to me, so there's no need for me to do that." @uɔzȂ̂炻̕Kv͂Ȃvƌl邪A

But surely we have never witnessed a time in history or in our daily lives when "an eye for an eye" has been able to prevent a quarrel or conflict.
uڂɂ͖ڂv⑈}ƂAjł퐶łxĂ邾낤B

I think the reason human society has been able to continue in some way or other is because people have held on to the attitude, "It's not easy, but let's make an effort to respect each other's feelings and position."
uۂɂ͂ȂȂނǁA݂̋C◧𑸏dw͂͂悤vƂCȂ炱lԎЉ͂ȂƂĂ̂ƎvB

"That's hard for you." "You've got it tough, too."
@uւłˁvu炱vB

Rather than coming out swinging, it's important to adopt a stance that pays consideration to the other person, and encourages consideration.
Cɏôł͂ȂAɔzpAz𑣂p؁B

And this should apply to any issue, whether it be Fukushima or international society, or even when thinking about diplomacy and security.
łێЉłOSۏlłA͓ł͂B

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
i_Ȉj
V@2014N0708@n
posted by srachai at 06:57| Comment(0) | p

## 2014N0811

### G{oM@ۘAgŊgH~߂

The Yomiuri Shimbun
International cooperation crucial to block spread of fatal Ebola virus
G{oM@ۘAgŊgH~߂

Widespread infection with Ebola virus has been reported in West Africa. International cooperation is essential to prevent the expansion of this terrible disease.
@AtJŁAG{oM̑ʊNĂBێЉAgAgH~߂Ȃ΂ȂȂB

The deadly virus has been spreading from Guinea since February. The death toll from the epidemic has topped 900 in Guinea and its two neighboring countries, Sierra Leone and Liberia, marking the largest number of victims since the first patient with Ebola virus was confirmed in 1976.
@͍NQAMjALBאڂVGIlƃxA܂߁A҂͂RłXOOl𒴂BPXVUNɍŏ̊҂mFĈȗAő̔QłB

Deaths from the virus have been also confirmed in Nigeria, which does not border any of the other three African countries. A patient with symptoms similar to those of Ebola died in the Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia. The deadly virus is thus threatening to spread across the world.
@RƍڂĂȂiCWFAŎ҂oقÃTEWArAłAǏ̊҂SBEɊgU˂Ȃ댯ȏ󋵂B

The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak to be ga public health emergency of international concernh and recommended that countries take measures to prevent the spread of the virus, such as strengthening surveillance at airports and issuing travel advisories.
@Eی@ցivgnj́uۓIȌOqً̋}ԁv錾Ał̊Ď◷s҂ւ̏񋟂ȂǊgUh~悤eɊB

For its part, Japan should steadily take necessary steps and not regard the outbreak as ga fire on the opposite shore.h
@{uΊ݂̉ΎvƂ݂ȂAɑ΍ׂB

Infection with the disease|formally known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever|occurs through contact with blood and other bodily fluids. The fatality rate is extremely high at 50 to 90 percent, as there are no effective treatment methods.
@G{oḾA҂̌tȂǂɐG邱ƂŊBLȎÖ@͂ȂA҂̒v͂TOXOƋɂ߂čB

The previous outbreak of the Ebola epidemic occurred mainly in agricultural areas. But this outbreak has reached populous urban areas, threatening to further increase the number of infections. This is a matter of grave concern.
@ߋ͎̊ɔ_ŋNA͐l̑ssɂyłBL₷AJׂԂłB

To contain the Ebola outbreak, it is crucial to strictly quarantine infected persons. It is also indispensable to keep area residents fully informed about the fatal disease.
@G{oM̊g𕕂߂ɂ́A҂iɊu邱Ƃ̗vBZɑ΂qm̎mOȂB

Separate efforts ineffective

In the three West African countries where mass Ebola infection has been reported, administrative and medical treatment systems remain fragile following the civil wars and coups that have occurred in recent years. There are limits to what these countries can do to deal with the outbreak on their own.
@ʊNŔAߔN܂œN[f^[AsÂ͍̑̐ƎズႭB͂ł̑Ώɂ͌EB

The fact that many doctors and nurses have been infected with the Ebola virus has increased worries about potential infection, thereby making it difficult to secure medical staff.
@̈tŌtߓhLAÃX^bt̊mۂɂȂĂB

The U.S. government has decided to send an additional 50 medical professionals to West Africa. The decision was apparently made in view of the serious conditions there.
@č{́AAtJɔhÐƂTOlj߂Bň𓥂܂Ă̂Ƃ낤B

Japan, for its part, must provide financial and other assistance as much as possible.
@{ȂǁAł̎x߂B

The Foreign Ministry of Japan has issued information on infection risk in the three West African countries, calling for people to postpone travel to these countries unless essential and urgent. To prevent Ebola infection from reaching Japan, vigilance must not be neglected at borders.
@OȂ̓MjAȂǂ̂RΏۂɁuǊ댯voAsvs}̓nq悤ĂтĂB{ɔщ΂Ȃ߁Aۂł̌xӂĂ͂ȂȂB

Should domestic infection emerge, the infected persons would be quarantined at a designated medical institution. Procedures for transport and admission of such patients must be verified.
@Ŋ҂oꍇ́AwË@ւɊu邱ƂɂȂĂB󂯓̎菇ĊmF邱Ƃ厖B

However, there is no special facility available domestically to safely handle viruses with a high fatality rate such as Ebola. If there is no alternative but to ask other counties to conduct an analysis of a pathogen, it is feared that there will be delays in implementing countermeasures.
@́AG{oMȂǒv̍ǂ̃ECXSɈ߂̓ʂȎ{݂Aɂ͂PȂƂłBâ͂̕OɈ˗𓾂Ȃ悤ł́AΉɉ鋰ꂪB

Protecting peoplefs lives from deadly infectious diseases is an important crisis-management task for the state. The government must step up efforts to bolster such a system.
@̖ǂ邱ƂƂ̏dvȊ@ǗłB̐̋}ׂB

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 9, 2014)
posted by srachai at 07:43| Comment(0) | ǔp

## 2014N0810

### iАj㗝oY@Ղȗpޔߌ

August 09, 2014
EDITORIAL: Down syndrome surrogacy case a cautionary tale for Japan
iАj㗝oY@Ղȗpޔߌ

In a shocking act of trampling on human rights and degrading the dignity of life, an Australian couple has abandoned a child born with Down syndrome to a Thai surrogate they hired. The boy is one of twins carried by the Thai woman, and the couple has returned home from Thailand with the other infant, a healthy girl.
@q̐lƑ𓥂݂ɂsׂɋB
@I[XgAlvw^Cő㗝oY˗B_Eǂ̒j܂ޑoq܂ꂽAvw͂̒j炸ɋAB

The couplefs selfish act has provoked international criticism. We can find some solace in the fact that the Thai woman said she would raise the boy on her own and has been receiving donations from around the world.
@̐gȐU܂ɍۓIȔᔻNĂB~̂́AY񂾏jĂƕ\AEx񂹂ꂽƂB

This tale has brought to the fore some deep-rooted problems inherent in the practice of gestational surrogacy, in which a woman becomes pregnant with a fertilized egg from a couple and gives birth on behalf of the wife.
@̃P[X͑O҂̏Ɏ󐸗ڐAAȂɑďoY㗝oY͂ޖ̍[˂ĂB

Pregnancy and childbirth inevitably entail risks. It sometimes happens that a surrogate mother begins to suffer serious complications after giving birth, or in worse cases even dies.
@DPEoYɃXN͂̂B㗝̏dǂ𕉂AɎ肷邱ƂB

The fundamental question is whether people should be allowed to impose such burdens on others in order to have their own children.
u̎qv߂ɁAȕS𑼐lɔw킹邱Ƃ邩Ƃ{IȖ₢B

Many cases of surrogacy involve a monetary payment to the surrogate mother.
@܂A܍sĂ㗝oY͕̑V𔺂B

The way people in wealthy nations hire surrogate mothers in poor countries smacks of exploitation based on economic disparities.
Lȍn֑㗝߂铮ɂ́Aoϊiwiɂ̐iۂ߂ȂB

It is hard to see the whole picture of international surrogacy, and there may be other cases similar to the one in Thailand.
@ۓIȑ㗝oY̑S̑͌ɂAl̃P[Xقɂ邩ȂB

There are many ways in which surrogacy contracts end up in serious trouble, such as the surrogate mother refusing to part with the baby or cases in which it is later found that the child has no blood relationship with the couple who hired the surrogate mother.
㗝ꂪԂȂAnqƈ˗lvwɌȂƂ̂ɂ킩Agủ͖B

Surrogacy is far from unknown in Japan. More than 20 years have passed since Japanese couples started hiring surrogate mothers in other countries to have children.
@悻̍̂ƂƂĂȂB{lvwCOő㗝oYĂQONȏソB

Initially, most of such Japanese couples sought surrogate mothers in the United States, but now Asian nations like Thailand and India are more popular because of lower costs.
̕čAV^CAChȂǃAWAɍs悪ڂĂB

In 2008, a case came to light in which a child born to an Indian surrogate hired by a Japanese man had not been allowed to leave India.
@OWNɂ́A{lj˗㗝oYɂChŐ܂ꂽqǂAołȂȂP[X\ʉB

Further complicating the surrogacy situation in this nation is the fact that Japan trails other countries in regulations on surrogate childbirths.
@[Ȃ̂́A㗝oY̋Kœ{傫xĂ邱ƂB

The government has been trying to ban surrogacy since the 2000s, but has so far failed to submit proposed legislation to the Diet.
{͂QOOONȍ~AւlA@ĂoɂB

The governmentfs expert panel as well as an academic society have called for a ban. Debate on the issue should not be delayed any further.
֎~͐{̐ψAwȂǂłoĂ邪AȏAc_x点ׂł͂ȂB

It is adults who adopt surrogacy as a means to have their children. But it is always children who suffer when such arrangements go awry. The rules concerning the issue should be designed to protect the well-being of children born under surrogacy arrangements.
@㗝oYƂiƂ̂͐e̓sAoYOɉ肪NƁAnɗ̂͏ɎqǂBq̑ɗ[߂B

Even if legislation banning surrogacy is established, however, it will still be difficult to prevent all surrogacy deals arranged overseas.
@AƂ@ĂACOł̎{ĥ͓낤B

Japan should try to work with other governments to investigate the issue more deeply and develop measures to ensure that surrogate mothers and children born to them will not find themselves in predicaments that spell hardship.
܂qǂ㗝ꂪnɊׂȂ悤A֌W{ԂŒA΍Âŋ͂łȂB

Some lawmakers of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party are campaigning for the submission of a comprehensive bill concerning reproductive medicine to the autumn extraordinary Diet session.
@}ɂ́AH̗ՎɐBÂ߂IȖ@Ēo߂B

The draft bill would allow surrogacy for only certain cases, such as women who do not have a uterus.
But there is no public consensus on key surrogacy-related issues. Debate on the matter should be based on both accurate scientific knowledge and values shared widely among Japanese citizens.
@fĂ͑㗝oYq{ȂꍇȂǏŔF߂Ă邪AЉ̋c_͒ǂĂȂBȊwIms̉lςɍKvB

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 9
posted by srachai at 07:47| Comment(0) | p

## 2014N0809

### @jRk𒅎ɑOi

The Yomiuri Shimbun
We must strive for steady progress in efforts for nuclear disarmament
@jRk𒅎ɑOi

By transmitting to the world the real facts of being a country where atomic bombs were dropped, we should solidify a global trend of nuclear disarmament so as not to let the catastrophic consequences of such a weapon occur again.
@jɂSЂxƌJԂȂ悤A픚̎AjRk̒mȂ̂ɂȂ΂Ȃ܂B

On Wednesday, Hiroshima marked the 69th anniversary of becoming a victim of an atomic bomb during the war.
@픚nELUXڂ̌}B

During a ceremony to commemorate the atomic bombing, Hiroshima Mayor Kazumi Matsui called for the international community to make efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons by saying, gWe pledge to join forces with people the world over seeking the abolition of the absolute evil, nuclear weapons, and the realization of lasting world peace.h
@Ls̏s͕aLOTŁAuwΈxłj̔pƐEPva̎ɌAE̐lXƋɗ͂sƂ𐾂܂vƏqׁAjpւ̓w͂ĂтB

There are about 17,000 nuclear warheads in the world. China is building up its nuclear capability while North Korea, which is proceeding with its nuclear development program, has repeatedly conducted ballistic missile tests.
@Eɂ͖PVOOO̊jeB͊j͂𑝋AjJi߂kN͒e~TC𑱂ĂB

Taking these threats into account, Japan has no option but to depend on the nuclear umbrella of the United States. Even so, it is a mission of Japan, as the sole country where atomic bombs were dropped, to testify to the world about the inhumane nature of nuclear weapons, while making incessant efforts to realize nuclear arms reduction.
@Ђ𓥂܂΁A{͈SۏAč̊j̎PɈˑ𓾂ȂBłAB̔픚ƂĊj̔liAjRk֕sf̓w͂d˂邱Ƃ͓{̎gB

The ministerial meeting of the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) hosted by Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida|attended by 12 nonnuclear nations and held in Hiroshima in April|should be recognized as part of such efforts made by Japan.
@NSAݓcO̎哱ɂALŊJÂꂽjۗLPQɂuRkEsgUCjVAuimochjOv́Ag݂̈Ƃĕ]ł悤B

Realistic approaches

In the statement adopted by the Hiroshima meeting, the participating countries stressed the need for a systematic and continued reduction of all types of nuclear weapons. They also said it was important to discuss the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons.
@ō̑ꂽL錾́AׂĂ̎ނ̊j̑̌nIpIȍ팸Aj̔lIeɊւc_̏dȂǂ𐷂荞łB

Of the 12 nations, seven states including Japan, Australia, Canada and Germany depend on the U.S. nuclear umbrella. The seven countries are characterized by their realistic approaches to realizing gradual nuclear disarmament, instead of calling for an immediate ban on nuclear weapons.
@PQ̂A{ABAJi_AhCcȂǂV́Ač̊j̎PɈˑĂBj̑֎~Ȃǂ͋߂AQiIȊjRkڎwIȃAv[Ă̂B

Nuclear-armed states such as the United States have also shown their understanding, to a certain extent, of the NPDIfs efforts.
@čȂǊjۗLAmochɂ͈̗ĂB

In the Hiroshima statement, the participating countries also call for the worldfs political leaders to visit Hiroshima and Nagasaki to witness the grave consequences of such a bombing.
@L錾́AEe̎w҂ɍLƒK₷邱ƂĂтĂB

U.S. President Barack Obama advocated for creating a world free from nuclear weapons in a speech in Prague five years ago. To realize progress in nuclear disarmament, it is important for the worldfs leaders, including Obama, to understand the reality of being victimized by such a bombing.
@Io}đ哝̂͂TNÕvnŁujȂEvBIo}琢E̗vlɔ픚̌mĂ炤Ƃ́AjRkOi邤ő؂B

U.S. Ambassador to Japan Caroline Kennedy, attending the memorial ceremony for her first time, released a comment saying, gThis is a day for somber reflection and a renewed commitment to building a more peaceful world.h We hope she will convey the voices raised by people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Obama and other leaders in the United States.
@aLOTɏ߂ĎQ񂵂č̃LCEPlfBǵulȎvŁA蕽aȐEz߂̐VɂłvƂ̃Rg𔭕\BLⒷ̐哝̂ɓĂ炢B

Next spring in New York, there will be a Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. This important international conference is held every five years to review the current state of affairs of nuclear weapons and to discuss the reduction and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.
@Ntɂ́Aj[[NŊjgUh~imosjČcJÂBǰ_ARkEsgUcTNɂPx̏dvȍۉcB

We hope there will be an acceleration in the discussion on nuclear disarmament at the 2015 review conference, with participating countries taking the spirit of the Hiroshima statement to heart.
@Čcł́AL錾̐_𓥂܂AjRk̋c_B

It is important for Japan, in solidarity with other NPDI member countries, to tenaciously call for a ban on nuclear tests and on the reduction of nuclear weapons.
{́ÂmochQȂǂƘAgAj̋֎~j̍팸ȂǂS苭iĂƂdvłB

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 7, 2014)
posted by srachai at 07:03| Comment(0) | ǔp

## 2014N0808

### iАj픚UXN̉ĂɁ@j̈@E֎~

August 06, 2014
EDITORIAL: Ban nuclear weapons on humanitarian grounds
iАj픚UXN̉ĂɁ@j̈@E֎~

gRemember Hiroshima, Nagasaki,h goes the refrain in gRemember,h a number released last year by singer Shinobu Sato (lyrics by Rei Nakanishi, music by Kisaburo Suzuki). Since then, Sato has been singing this song at concerts all over Japan.
@􃊃o[@qV}EiKTL
@yƂ̍̂Ԃ񂪁AN\ȁuo[viȂɂ쎌A؃LTu[ȁjeñRT[gŉ̂ĂB

Why grememberh? It was often quoted by artist and nuclear disarmament activist Yoko Ono, who insisted that Japan, the worldfs sole victim of nuclear attacks, should keep telling the rest of the world to gremember.h She explained, gThere are too many people who donft remember, arenft there?h
@ȂAo[ioĂjȂ̂BƂƂ͊jpiĂ|pƃImE[R񂪁A픚{琢EɔMׂtƂČɂBuāAoĂȂlAłvƁB

She went on to express her wish that people around the world would imagine and understand the horrors of nuclear bombs before they say, gNo more.h
@m[AƌOɁAE̐lXɌ̔ߎSmĂقBvNĂقB

Onofs wish echoes the desperate appeals that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors) have been making to the international community for decades. Their appeals have often been ignored in the coldly calculating setting of international politics and nuclear disarmament negotiations.
@́A픚҂炪NAEɑiĂɐ؂ȎvƏdȂBې̗OȂЂjRk߂ĵȂŁAƂƁAꂪłB

But in this 69th year since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the inhumanity of nuclear weapons is being highlighted anew.
@A픚UXN̍Aj̔񓹂߂ĒڂĂB

Momentum is surging among nations that are seeking total nuclear disarmament and asking, gWhy canft we ban nuclear weapons altogether on humanitarian grounds?h
@ulɔ镺ł邱ƂɁAj֎~łȂvBjp߂鍑XɂAȓ}ɍ܂Ă邩łB

DESTRUCTION THAT DEFIES ALL RELIEF EFFORT
@~s\Ȕj

In violence-torn Ukraine, Iraq, Gaza and elsewhere, many lives are being lost even as we speak.
@ENCiACNApXiKUccB킢ő̖ĂB

Some people think all lethal weapons are equally inhumane, be they nuclear, chemical or conventional missiles or guns. Still, nuclear weapons should be considered differently from the rest.
@ẾAjAw~TCAeA͈lɔlIƍll邾낤BA͂Aj͕ʂɍlׂȂ̂łB

Over the last two years, four international conferences have been held about nuclear weapons, and each conference has produced a joint declaration condemning their inhumanity. The number of participating nations in support of these declarations has grown each time, from 16 to 34, 80 and 125.
@ߋQNԁAj鍑ۉcSJꂽBlɊւ鋤̓sxAĂA^͂PUARSAWOAPQTƖc񂾁BčNQALVR̃ibgB

In February this year, as many as 146 nations gathered in Nayarit, Mexico, for the International Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, although none of the five major nuclear nations--the United States, Russia, France, Britain and China--was in attendance.
j̔l₤̉cɂT卑͎QȂAPSU̍W܂B

Summing up the current state of affairs at the conference, the chairman noted that the impact of any nuclear detonation can spread far enough to cross national borders and that the effects of the destruction of infrastructure and health damage from radiation will remain for an extremely long time. But no matter how badly relief work is needed, no country or international organ is fully equipped to handle it, the chairman pointed out.
@ȏAc͊j̓ƌ\B
@j̉e͍zقǍLACtjːQ̉e͋ɂ߂ĒB~KvłAǂ̍ۋ@ւΏȂB

Yet, he continued, there is no end to countries and terrorist groups that seek to possess nuclear weapons, and the danger of nuclear detonation by mistake or as an act of terror keeps increasing.
Ȃ̂ɊjƂƂ鍑eWc͌₽A~Xeɂj̊댯͑\\B

The chairmanfs observation echoed what many people have been thinking: When nuclear weapons that cause tremendous damage already exist in mind-boggling numbers, on what grounds can anyone ever say that the human race will still survive?
@rȔQ炷jACȂقǑ݂BɁÅ낤܂܂ŐlނȂ炦ƌ邾낤BȖ₢Aɂ͂B

RETURN TO THE BASICS
@p߂_A

In the latter half of the 20th century, humanity came face to face with grave challenges, such as global warming and the depletion of resources from mass consumption. As a result, we have come to accept certain limitations to our daily activities, if that is what will help the human race survive.
@QOI㔼Alނ͎̑ʏƌ͊AngƂɒʂBlނтɂ́AX̊ꕔ񂳂Ăނ𓾂Ȃƍl悤ɂȂĂB

We believe the same sort of attitude is needed on matters of security. We cannot just sit and do nothing when we already have more than enough nuclear weapons hanging over our heads, so to speak, to drive the human race and civilization to extinction.
@SۏɂlȊoKv낤BlނƕŖŜӂɒǂɏ\Ȋj킪AˑRƂē̏ɂԂ牺Ă͕̂ułȂB

The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty restricts the possession of nuclear weapons to the five major nuclear nations and requires them to proceed with nuclear disarmament with sincerity. But the treaty has proved less effective than expected because of the deeply ingrained belief that the gpower of nuclear deterrenceh guarantees the safety of the nation.
@jɊւẮAjsgUimosjۗLT卑ɌAT卑͐ɊjRki߂邱Ƃ߂ĂBAv悤Ȑʂ͏オĂȂBjō̈Smۂuj}~v̍l݂Ă邩炾B

Given this situation, we must return to the basics and ban nuclear weapons on humanitarian grounds. We can start by prohibiting the pre-emptive use of nuclear weapons, and then proceed to banning their use under all circumstances, until they are completely eliminated.
@ȂΌ_ɕԂAlɊj@ĂƂBƂΊj̐搧gp̋֎~AɎgpSʂl@@āA̔pɂȂBw킪gp֎~ASʋ֎~ւƐi񂾂ƂvNB

CITIZENS DECIDE THE FUTURE
@s䂩猈߂関

At the Nayarit conference, five atomic-bomb survivors were given more than one hour to make their presentations. This was unprecedented on a diplomatic stage.
@ibgcł͖A픚҂TlɂPԈȏ̔@mۂꂽBO̕ł͉IȂƂB

Setsuko Thurlow, a Canadian resident, was 13 years old when she survived the Hiroshima atomic bomb 69 years ago. She gave a vivid account in English of how her classmates and relatives died before her eyes. The majority of more than 70 conference attendees who participated in a general discussion session voiced empathy with what the hibakusha had to say.
@UXNO̍ALłPR΂Ŕ픚T[[Eߎq񁁃Ji_ݏŹAeނ̎ɂ䂭ppŐXBʓ_ɗVOlȏ̑\̑唼A픚҂̔ɋ\B

In wrapping up the conference, the chairman called for tangible action, including the drafting of a treaty to ban nuclear weapons. His comments were hailed as a succinct summary of the discussions of the past five years regarding the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons, and also as a clear counterproposal to the nuclear nations that continue to rely on their nuclear arsenals.
@c͑ŁAj֎~ÂȂǂOɁA̓IɓoƌĂтBTNقǂ̊j̔l߂c_܂Ƃ߁Ajɗ葱ۗLւ̑΍R𖾊mɑłôƂāAڂW߂B

In December this year, a conference in Vienna will take up where the Nayarit conference left off. Not only the five major nuclear nations, but also as many countries as possible should attend the Vienna conference and hear the discussions.
@NPQAibg󂯂ۉcEB[ŊJBPJłAT卑QāAc_ɎXׂłB

Three times in the past, the Japanese government refused to endorse joint statements condemning the inhumanity of nuclear weapons, and came under harsh criticism from the mayors and citizens of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for gcontradicting its stated policy of seeking total nuclear disarmament as the government of the A-bombed nation.h But at Nayarit, the Japanese government finally came around.
@{{͊j̔lᔻ鋤ɂāA^RxBLA藼s͂߁As̑u픚̗Ajp߂鐭ƖĂł͂ȂvƐ{̑ΉBSxڂɂƎpςB

Mayors for Peace, presided over by the mayor of Hiroshima, currently has an active membership exceeding 6,000 mayors around the world. With a growing nuclear risk now being felt globally, it appears that so many mayors are participating in the latest Mayors for Peace conference because they are aware of the sense of crisis being felt by the public at large.
@Ls𖱂߂镽a񒷉cɂ͍AEłU𒴂񒷂QBl̍ۉcɌ炸AjXNւ̊뜜͊mɋ܂ĂB̎񒷂Q̂́AsɍL邻뜜ƂĂ̂Ƃ낤B

Matters of national security must not be left to the government alone to decide. Whether something deviates from human decency is for us, ordinary citizens, to determine. Let us always bear that firmly in mind.
@Sۏ̖肾ƍCɂ͂ȂBl̓ɊOĂ邩ǂ߂̂́Aʂɕ炷łBoĂB

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 6
posted by srachai at 06:33| Comment(0) | p

## 2014N0807

### A[@unQ^Jv̉\ڂɗ]

The Yomiuri Shimbun
eVulturesf drive Argentina into default, turning debt relief accords to ashes
A[@unQ^Jv̉\ڂɗ]

The Argentine government has fallen into default, unable to keep up with interest payments on its debt.
@A[{̗łȂssiftHgj̏ԂɊׂB

It is important to deal with the latest turmoil and prevent it from developing into a serious and more widespread financial crisis.
@Ԃ̑E}[Ȋ@Ɋg債Ȃ悤ɂ邱ƂdvB

The latest default resulted from the collapse of talks between the country and U.S. hedge fund creditors, which sought payment in full.
@̃ftHǵASzԍς߂ēt@hƂ̌ɂċNB

Argentina fell into its first default in 2001. Later, Argentina reached agreements with more than 90 percent of investors to wholly or partially write off obligations comprising about 70 percent of the countryfs \$100 billion debt as part of its restructuring plans. It has made interest payments since then.
@A[͂QOOPNɂftHgɂȂBPOOOh̍ɂĂX̓ƂƖV̌ƂōӂA𑱂ĂB

But certain U.S. fund creditors, refusing to accept the debt reduction plans, sued the country. An earlier U.S. court decision that was recently upheld by the Supreme Court blocks Argentina from making interest payments to other bondholders who separately agreed to restructuring plans until the U.S. hedge funds get paid the full value of their bonds.
@Ƃ낪AƂɉȂt@hiAt@hɑSzԍς܂ő̍҂ւ̗F߂ȂƂ锻Ač̍ōقŊm肵B

With the recent decision by the U.S. court, Argentina has become unable to make interest payments to other creditors no matter how much the country wants to do so.
@̂߁AA[{̓t@hȊO̍҂ɗĂłȂȂB

The hedge funds in question snapped up Argentinafs junk bonds from original investors following the first default and then refused the restructuring terms, suing for repayment in full. It is hardly surprising for the Argentine financial authorities to criticize the hedge fund creditors as gvultures.h
@̓t@h́A̍҂獑jïlŔASzԍς߂ٔNBA[ǂt@hunQ^JvƁAĂ͓̂R낤B

Impact limited, for now

Currently, there is hardly any trading of Argentinafs national bonds on the market. Therefore the latest development is expected to have only a limited impact on the international financial market.
@݁AA[̎s͂قƂǂȂAۋZsւ̉e͌IƂB

Yet Argentinafs economy will inevitably be affected by the impact of the pesofs decline in the currency market, due to the decline in the countryfs creditworthiness. Close attention is needed as to whether the latest development may cause a negative chain reaction involving such emerging economies as Brazil, which is closely linked with the Argentine economy.
@AMpቺɂʉ݈ȂǁAA[oςւ̑Ō͔ȂBoς̌т̋uWȂǐVɘAȂAKvB

Prolonging the current turmoil may not be a good course of action to take for the U.S. hedge funds, either. No matter how hard they drive Argentinafs weak economy into a corner, they cannot expect much benefit for themselves. The hedge funds must search for a realistic middle ground with the Argentine government.
@̒́At@hɂƂĂł͂܂Boϗ̖͂RA[ǂ߂ƂŁÂ͌悤Bt@h̓A[{Ƃ̊ԂŁAIȑË_TׂB

The problem is that, due to the fundsf attempt to rake in money, the agreements that other creditors reached earlier with Argentina to resolve the default crisis in 2001|even at the possible cost of suffering a loss|have turned to ashes.
@́Ar҂_t@h̍sŁAOPÑA[@邽߁A҂oŌ񂾍ӂAȒPɑ䖳ɂȂƂłB

Many are skeptical of the U.S. court decision, which gave credit to the U.S. fundsf unilateral assertions, despite the fact that a large number of creditors had agreed with Argentina over the restructuring plans.
@̍҂ӂo܂̂ɁAt@ḧIȎ咣F߂čٔ̎i@f^⎋錩B

The fact that an international agreement has been overturned by the judicial ruling of a single country has fueled concern among such financial institutions as the International Monetary Fund that it would become ever more difficult to compile assistance efforts such as debt reductions or exemptions, should such a crisis as debt default occur in other countries in the future.
@ꍑ̎i@fۓIȍӂ𕢂ƂɁAےʉ݊ihlejȂǂ́AŏAftHgȂǂNہAƂƂx܂Ƃ߂ɂȂƂ̌O߂ĂB

Recently there have been many national bonds that have set, at the time of issuance, a provision that if a certain ratio of creditors agree with a debt reduction, all the creditors will have to comply with the agreement.
@ŋ߂́A芄̍҂팸ɍӂ΁AׂĂ̍҂]Ȃ΂ȂȂƂAsɒ߂Ă鍑ƂB

The IMF and the Group of Seven major powers have to expedite their efforts to draw up an international framework to help such agreements retain their validity even in the judicial arena.
@hleiVifVj́A茈߂i@̏łۂĂ悤AۓIȘggݍ}ׂB

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 5, 2014)
posted by srachai at 07:06| Comment(0) | ǔp

## 2014N0806

### iАjVd̃e@

August 04, 2014
EDITORIAL: China's racial policy fuels cycle of violence in Xinjiang region
iАjVd̃e@

The Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region is an inland region in far western China that has a large population of Uighur Muslims.
@̐VdECÓACXk̃ECO炷nłB

The region has recently been hit by a series of violent attacks believed to have been perpetrated by terrorists. There are no signs of calming the wave of violence in the region.
@̒nōŋ߁AeƂ݂\͎łAÉ̋CzȂB

It is necessary to take a firm stand against violence. But it is hard to deny that the approach the authorities have adopted to deal with the problems behind these attacks has only stirred up resentment among the local people.
@\͂ɂ͒fłƂΏKvȂ͓̂RBAǂ̂n݂̑𑝕Ă邱Ƃۂ߂ȂB

China is a multiracial nation. Although Han Chinese form a great majority of the population, the vast country is home to various minority races with diverse values and lifestyles.
@͊̂A܂܂ȏlȕ炵cޑƂłB

The chain of violence in the Xinjiang region indicates that the Chinese governmentfs racial policy has gone awry. Beijing needs to rethink its fundamental attitude toward ethnic minorities.
@\̘͂ẤA{̖̍sl܂肾BƂ̌{IɌƂKv낤B

An incident of violence in the regionfs Kashgar district in late July involved an exceptionally large group of attackers. Dozens of knife-wielding militants attacked the local government office and police station, killing and injuring many.
@TAJVKnŋŃAƍsWc̋K͂ЂƂ傫Bn\ln{x@PAB

In May, bombs set off in a busy morning market in Urumqi, the capital of the region, left more than 100 people dead or injured.
@Vd̒SssAEł͂TɒsŔB

After the May incident, President Xi Jinping ordered strict precautions against ga chain reaction.h The administration tightened its crackdown on gextremist religious groups.h
KߕiV[sjƎȂuAhvƖAuߌ@O[vv̓EꂽB

Chinese police have huge powers to maintain law and order. They are allowed to wiretap telephone lines and monitor private communications over the Internet.
@db̓AlbǧM̊Ď܂߁Ax@͋͂Ȏێ\͂B

Chinese leaders should ponder why the chain reaction of violence in the region has not stopped, despite the governmentfs enormous police power.
łA~܂ȂR[ɍl˂΂ȂȂB

Recent news reports on the situation in Xinjiang suggest that the Chinese government has been tightening its control over the people in the region in ways that brutally ignore Islamic customs.
@ŋߓꂽn̗lq́ACX̏K𓥂݂ɂ悤Ȓ߂Ă邱ƂB

Officials in the region, for instance, compelled some Muslim restaurant owners to remain open during the holy fasting month of Ramadan. Police detained Muslim women for wearing headscarves.
@Hoc҂fĤȂ̊JXꂽAXJ[tŊ𕢂x@ɕ߂܂B

There have been reports that the attack in Kashgar was triggered by the crackdown on the wearing of scarves.
JVKn̎A[̓XJ[t̎܂肾Ƃ̕񓹂B

Violence is unpardonable. By seeking to ban even the daily customs of Muslims, however, the Chinese government has gone too far in its fight against violence. The governmentfs actions are not so much as efforts to prevent crimes as they are an oppression of an ethnic minority.
@\͂͋Ă͂ȂȂBAK̔ےɂ܂œ˂iނ͕̂słA͂܂ƂeB

The authorityfs iron-fisted policy toward the restive region has provoked the chain reaction of violence there.
ǂ̐U镑AĂłB

Last week, in another disturbing move, the Chinese government indicted the outspoken, Beijing-based Uighur scholar Ilham Tohti on charges of gseparatism.h
@ĐSẑAݖk̃ECOw҃CnEgteBTAƕ}߂ŋNiꂽƂB

Tohti is known as a moderate who has been working for reconciliation between Uighurs and Han Chinese. His indictment has drawn strong criticism from both inside and outside China.
@ƃECO̘a߂hƂĒmlB̑[uɂ͓O狭^̐oĂB

Chinese law-enforcement authorities have asserted that the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, which it describes as a foreign terrorist group, is inciting Uighurs to carry out terrorist attacks.
@ǂ́AÕegDugLX^ECX^vECOAesĂƒfĂB

It is possible that the attackers may have been influenced by Muslim extremists.
@e^҂炪CXߌh̉e󂯂\͂낤B

But the government appears to be trying to shift responsibility for its policy failure by blaming the series of attacks in the region on a terrorist organization and others incited by the group.
AO̎׈ȑgDƁAɐꂽꕔqƂ_@́A̐􎸔s̐ӔC]łʂB

According to Chinafs Constitution, all races are equal and their customs should be respected. People in China should also have religious freedom.
@e͕łAEK͑dB@EM̎RB

Leaders in Beijing should not forget that these are fundamental principles of the nationfs Constitution.
͒̌@łA匴ɂȂĂ邱ƂYĂ͂ȂȂB

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 3
posted by srachai at 06:28| Comment(0) | p
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