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妻はタイ人、娘ばかり3人も!

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■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
ocn cafe
fc2
goo
yahoo
ameba

 
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posted by fanblog

2013年01月31日

所信表明演説 危機突破へ成長戦略を語れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 30, 2013)
Abe must formulate strategy to boost nation's growth
所信表明演説 危機突破へ成長戦略を語れ(1月29日付・読売社説)

Strong determination and concrete policy measures are imperative in achieving the breakthroughs needed to overcome the crises facing Japan.
 日本が直面する「危機」を突破していくには、強い意志と具体的な政策が重要である。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe made his first policy speech since regaining power at the plenary sessions of the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors.
 安倍首相が衆参両院本会議で、政権復帰後初めての所信表明演説を行った。

Abe said the source of his determination to serve as prime minister for the second time lies in his "deep sense of patriotism." He clearly demonstrated his resolve to have his entire Cabinet make utmost efforts to address crises in four areas: the economy, reconstruction from the 2011 earthquake disaster, foreign and security issues, and education.
 首相に再登板した決意の源は「深き憂国の念」だとし、経済と震災復興、外交・安全保障、教育の四つの「危機」に内閣を挙げて取り組む姿勢を明確にした。

What he underscored as the biggest and most pressing issue was economic revitalization. A strong economy will help increase individuals' income and strengthen the foundations for social security systems. The prime minister's recognition of the importance of this issue is appropriate.
 最大かつ喫緊の課題と強調したのは経済再生だ。「強い経済」が国民の所得を増やし、社会保障制度の基盤強化にもつながるとする首相の認識は妥当である。

The government has issued a joint statement with the Bank of Japan that stipulates a 2 percent inflation target. A supplementary budget that includes stimulus measures worth 10 trillion yen will be submitted to the Diet shortly. We praise Abe for setting in motion two of his "three arrows" for economic revitalization--monetary easing and fiscal measures.
 政府は、2%の物価目標を明記した日本銀行との共同声明をまとめた。10兆円規模の経済対策を盛り込んだ補正予算案を近く国会に提出する。首相の掲げる「3本の矢」のうち金融緩和と財政政策が動き出したことは評価できる。

===

Handle divided Diet carefully

The remaining "arrow" is growth strategy. At the Headquarters for Japan's Economic Revitalization, comprising the entire Cabinet, and the Industrial Competitiveness Council, in which relevant Cabinet ministers and outside experts are participating, the Abe administration must hammer out effective policy measures to stimulate private investment to increase synergistic effects with monetary and fiscal policy measures.
 残るのは成長戦略だ。全閣僚参加の日本経済再生本部や、有識者を交えた産業競争力会議で、民間投資を喚起する効果的な政策を打ち出し、金融・財政政策との相乗効果を高めねばならない。

To overcome the nation's crises, the prime minister called on the opposition bloc to cooperate. "Let us mobilize the wisdom of the ruling and opposition parties and demonstrate Japan's strength to the greatest possible extent," Abe said in his speech. It also is essential for the administration to carefully handle the Diet, as the upper house is controlled by the opposition.
 首相は演説で危機突破のために「与野党の叡智(えいち)を結集させ、国力を最大限発揮させよう」と野党に協力を求めた。衆参ねじれ国会であることからも、丁寧な国会運営が欠かせない。

A focal point in the Diet is that the government must obtain approval for its appointment of the successor to Bank of Japan Gov. Masaaki Shirakawa, whose term expires in April. Early passage of budgets and related bills also is of major importance.
 国会の焦点は、4月に任期が切れる白川方明日銀総裁の後任人事の国会同意取り付けと、予算案と予算関連法案の早期成立だ。

Besides holding talks with the Democratic Party of Japan, the largest party in the upper house, the ruling parties should hold discussions with Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party, which share similar views on monetary and economic policy measures. We believe the Abe administration should consider the possibility of joining hands with these parties on a policy-by-policy basis.
 参院第1党の民主党に加え、金融・経済政策で共通点が多い日本維新の会やみんなの党とも協議することが重要だ。政策ごとの連携も視野に入れる必要があろう。

===

How will PM rebuild China ties

In his speech, Abe delivered simple and easy-to-understand messages as he narrowed the points to highlight certain issues.
 今回の演説は、首相がメリハリをつけようと項目を絞り込んだため、シンプルで分かりやすいメッセージになった。

On the other hand, we consider unsatisfactory Abe's failure to refer to many important issues. We want him to clarify his stances on these issues through Diet debates.
反面、多くの重要課題に言及がなかったことは物足りない。国会論戦を通じて見解を明らかにしてもらいたい。

They include the government's policy toward China, one of the nation's biggest pending issues. Abe earlier said the nation would "resolutely protect" the Senkaku Islands. But we wonder how Japan-China relations will be rebuilt.
 例えば、最大の懸案の一つである中国政策だ。尖閣諸島を「断固として守り抜く」とする一方で、日中関係をどう立て直すのか。

Abe also did not touch on energy policy. We think he should have provided a full explanation on the necessity of reactivating idled nuclear reactors so that public anxiety over electricity shortages will not hinder economic revitalization.
 エネルギー政策にも触れていない。電力不足への不安感が経済再生の足を引っ張らないよう、首相が原発再稼働の必要性を丁寧に説明すべきだったのではないか。

He clearly stated in his speech that Japan would play a leading role in economic and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region.
 首相は演説で、日本がアジア太平洋地域で経済や安保の「先導役」となることを明言した。

Therefore, he should have Japan enter negotiations on the U.S.-led Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade framework so the nation will be able to take full advantage of growth in other parts of Asia.
 それならば、アジアの成長を取り込むため、米国が主導する環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉への参加を決断すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 29, 2013)
(2013年1月29日01時27分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 06:58| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月30日

オバマ氏2期目 米国再生へ真価が問われる

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 29, 2013)
Can U.S. achieve revival during Obama's 2nd term?
オバマ氏2期目 米国再生へ真価が問われる(1月28日付・読売社説)

The coming four years will be a crucial test of Barack Obama's ability to revive the United States.
 米国再生へ成果が問われる重要な4年間だ。

After his reelection, Obama has launched his second term as U.S. president.
 再選を果たしたオバマ米大統領が、2期目のスタートを切った。

In a speech marking the inauguration of his second term, Obama touted his first-term achievements, saying: "A decade of war is now ending. An economic recovery has begun."
 オバマ氏は新たな任期に臨む就任式で「10年に及ぶ戦争は今、終わりつつある。経済の回復も始まった」と述べ、1期目の成果を誇示した。

U.S. troops in Afghanistan will complete their combat mission shortly and pull out at the end of next year. Stock prices that nosedived after the "Lehman shock" have been rising sharply, exceeding precrisis levels. And the U.S. energy boom is surging due to the so-called shale gas revolution.
 アフガニスタン駐留米軍は戦闘任務をまもなく終え、来年末には撤収する。リーマン・ショックで急落した株価も危機前の水準を超えて大幅に上昇し、シェールガス革命でエネルギーブームだ。

Obama probably takes pride in his achievement of overcoming negative legacies of the previous Bush administration.
 オバマ氏には、ブッシュ前政権の「負の遺産」を克服したという自負心があるのだろう。

However, a bumpy road lies ahead before the United States can attain a full-scale revival.
 ただし、本格的な再生へ、前途はいばらの道である。

===

Fiscal mess must be fixed

The top-priority challenge will be fiscal reconstruction.
 最重要課題は財政再建だ。

Fiscal deficits topped 1 trillion dollars (about 90 trillion yen) for four consecutive years, and government debts ballooned to exceed 16 trillion dollars.
 財政赤字は4年連続で1兆ドル(約90兆円)を超え、政府債務残高も16兆ドル超に膨れ上がった。

The United States has so far avoided the double threats of falling off the fiscal cliff: mandatory spending cuts and the expiration of large-scale tax breaks. A government default will likely be avoided for about three months by raising the ceiling on the issuance of U.S. Treasury bills, which limits federal borrowing.
 大型減税の失効と歳出の強制削減が重なる「財政の崖」からの転落は、ひとまず回避した。連邦政府の借り入れ枠である米国債発行枠(債務上限)を暫定的に引き上げ、デフォルト(債務不履行)も約3か月避けられる方向だ。

However, implementation of drastic fiscal reconstruction measures are being put on the back burner.
 だが、抜本的な財政再建策は先送りされている。

Obama must display strong leadership in passing necessary bills through Congress.
 オバマ氏は、議会で必要な法案が成立するよう、強い指導力を発揮しなければならない。

Partisan confrontation has been intensifying rather than subsiding under a divided Congress in which the House of Representatives is controlled by the opposition Republican Party and the Senate by the Democratic Party. Obama will face a tough job in dealing with Republican representatives on key bills.
 下院を野党・共和党、上院を民主党が制する“ねじれ議会”で、党派対立はむしろ深まっている。議会対策は容易ではあるまい。

To help overcome the challenge, Obama is replacing key Cabinet members--including secretaries of Treasury, state and defense--and has nominated seasoned politicians with broad influence in Congress to fill the posts.
 オバマ氏が、財務、国務、国防各長官ら主要閣僚を交代し、議会に顔が利くベテランを指名したのも、そのための布陣と言える。

===

A host of challenges

Obama faces a host of difficult policy challenges at home. Among them are legislation for gun control in the aftermath of the shooting rampage that claimed the lives of 20 elementary school students, and reform of the immigration system to give the children of illegal immigrants conditional citizenship.
 小学生20人が犠牲となった銃乱射事件を受けた銃規制の法整備、不法移民の子供に条件付きで市民権を付与する移民制度改革など、内政の難題は山積している。

On diplomatic and security fronts, Obama will have to cope with the ongoing nuclear development programs of North Korea and Iran. Washington's active engagement will be indispensable to promote the deadlocked Middle East peace process and deal with the turmoil stemming from the Arab Spring pro-democracy movement.
 外交・安全保障面では、進む一方の北朝鮮やイランの核開発に取り組まねばならない。停滞したままの中東和平や「アラブの春」後の混乱に対処する上でも、米国の積極的な関与は欠かせない。

Above all, the Obama administration's strategy of focusing on Asia is being put to the test.
 とりわけ、アジア重視戦略の真価が問われている。

How will the White House develop a relationship with the Chinese administration led by Xi Jinping while curbing the moves of China, which has been expanding its military and economic power? It will be essential for the United States to buttress relations with Japan and other allies to build a free, open and peaceful Asia-Pacific region.
 軍事的にも経済的にも膨張著しい中国を牽制(けんせい)しつつ、習近平政権とどういう関係を築くのか。自由で開かれた平和なアジア太平洋地域の構築へ、日本など同盟国との関係強化は不可欠である。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will visit the United States next month and hold a summit meeting with Obama. We hope the two leaders will discuss how to reinforce the Japan-U.S. alliance from a strategic viewpoint focusing on China.
 安倍首相は来月、訪米し、オバマ氏と首脳会談に臨む。中国をにらんだ戦略的な日米同盟の強化策を論じ合ってもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 28, 2013)
(2013年1月28日01時07分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 06:40| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月29日

巨額貿易赤字 輸出力の強化と原発再稼動を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 28, 2013)
Restart nuclear power plants, boost exports to recoup trading ground
巨額貿易赤字 輸出力の強化と原発再稼動を(1月27日付・読売社説)

The foundation of Japan as a trading country is eroding. Both government and private sectors must work together to recoup lost ground.
 「貿易立国」としての日本の土台が揺らいでいる。官民で巻き返しを図らねばならない。

The 2012 trading balance--exports minus imports--ran up a record deficit of 6.9 trillion yen, far exceeding 2.6 trillion yen in 1980 that immediately followed the second oil crisis.
 輸出額から輸入額を差し引いた2012年の貿易収支は、過去最大の6・9兆円の赤字だった。第2次石油危機直後の1980年に記録した2・6兆円を大きく上回った。

Last year's trade deficit is 2.7 times more than the 2011 figure, the first trade deficit in 31 years, which was attributable to the negative effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake. This is a very serious situation.
 東日本大震災の影響で31年ぶりに貿易赤字に転落した一昨年と比べても2・7倍に増えた。極めて深刻な事態である。

The trade deficit was caused by a decline in exports due to the European financial crisis and deceleration of the Chinese economy, combined with a sharp increase in imports.
 要因は、欧州危機や中国経済減速に伴い、輸出が減少する一方、輸入が急増したことによる。

After the disaster occurred at Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, the operations of nuclear reactors were suspended around the country. Since then, only two have been reactivated.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故後、原発が全国で停止し、再稼働したのは2基にとどまる。

As an alternative electricity source, power companies have been operating thermal power stations at full blast. Consequently, imports of liquefied natural gas, the fuel needed for these power stations, have increased abnormally to a massive 6 trillion yen a year.
 電力各社が代替電源として火力発電をフル稼働した結果、燃料となる液化天然ガス(LNG)の輸入額が年間で約6兆円にも達する異常事態になっている。

Meanwhile, Japan's current account balance, which includes dividends and interest from overseas investment, remains in surplus. However, there are concerns that this balance will eventually fall into the red if the trade deficit continues.
 海外への投資による配当や利子の受け取りを含めた経常黒字は続いている。だが、巨額の貿易赤字が慢性化すると、いずれ経常収支も赤字転落が懸念されよう。

===

Hollowing out of industry

To rebuild its status as a trading nation, Japan first has to strengthen the competitiveness of its manufacturing industry to increase exports.
 「貿易立国」の立て直しにまず必要なのは、輸出拡大につながる製造業の競争力強化である。

Japanese electrical appliance manufacturers have fallen behind their South Korean rivals in the markets of flat-screen televisions, mobile phones and others. Japan also has a 3 trillion yen a year excess in imports for medicine and medical equipment, markets that are growing quickly.
 電機業界は、薄型テレビや携帯電話市場などで韓国メーカーなどに出遅れた。成長市場である医薬・医療機器分野でも、年約3兆円の輸入超過になっている。

Japanese manufacturers must develop attractive products of high value and find ways to capitalize on growing markets in the emerging economies of Asia and other regions.
 製造業各社が、付加価値の高い魅力的な商品を開発し、アジアなど新興国の成長市場を積極的に取り込む工夫が要る。

Behind the huge trade deficit is the rapid hollowing-out of the domestic manufacturing industry, as Japanese firms are moving their production overseas to avoid the high costs of operating in this country.
 貿易赤字の背景には、コスト高を回避するため、製造業が拠点を海外に移転し、国内空洞化が加速している事情がある。

The government should help Japanese companies by such means as lowering corporate tax and giving tax credits for investment so they will be able to take full advantage of manufacturing in Japan. The Industrial Competitiveness Council created recently by the government should devise measures to promote "made-in-Japan" products.
 国内立地の利点を享受できるよう、政府は法人税減税や投資減税などを拡充し、企業を支援すべきだ。新設された産業競争力会議は「メード・イン・ジャパン」のテコ入れ策を示してもらいたい。

===

Make decision on TPP

The government also should not wait any longer to decide on participating in negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact to help Japanese firms compete better in overseas markets.
 海外市場の攻略には、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)への参加決断も待ったなしだ。

What would be most important to reduce imports would be to reactivate idle nuclear reactors quickly after their safety has been confirmed. The longer Japan depends on thermal power generation, LNG imports will continue to increase and the nation's wealth will flow to countries rich in natural resources.
 一方、輸入を減らすために最も重要なのは、安全性を確認できた原発の再稼働を急ぐことだ。火力発電に依存する状況が長期化するほど、LNGの輸入額が増えて国富が資源国に流出する。

The rising cost of LNG also will eventually result in an increase in electricity charges.
 LNG調達コスト上昇で電気料金値上げに拍車をかけよう。

The excessively strong yen has been corrected and the weaker yen is becoming the norm on foreign exchange markets. This helps exporters, but excessive depreciation of the yen will further increase the prices of imports of LNG and other foreign products. Close attention should be paid to this.
 為替市場で超円高が是正され、円安が定着してきた。輸出企業にはプラスだが、円安が行き過ぎるとLNGなどの輸入額を一段と急増させる。これにも要警戒だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 27, 2013)
(2013年1月27日01時34分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 06:21| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月28日

途上国リスク 日本企業が抱える課題は重い

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 27, 2013)
Hostage crisis shows challenges facing Japanese firms abroad
途上国リスク 日本企業が抱える課題は重い(1月26日付・読売社説)

The taking of hostages by Islamist militants at a natural gas plant in Algeria has forced Japanese companies operating abroad to review their security management systems.
 アルジェリアで起きたイスラム武装勢力による人質事件は、海外展開する日本企業に危機管理体制の見直しを迫った。

They have to strike a difficult balance between developing business opportunities abroad and preparing countermeasures against terrorism and other risks.
 ビジネスチャンスを拡大しながら、テロなどのリスクにどう備えるか。難しい課題の両立策を模索しなければならない。

In the recent crisis, 10 employees of major plant construction company JGC Corp. and companies related to it were killed. On Friday, the bodies of nine of them returned to Japan on a Japanese government plane, along with seven survivors.
 犠牲になった大手プラントメーカー日揮と関連会社の社員10人のうち9人の遺体と、無事だった7人が、政府専用機で帰国した。

JGC has developed natural resources in Algeria since the 1960s. It does business not only in Africa but also in many countries in the Middle East, Asia and other regions.
 日揮は1960年代からアルジェリアの資源開発に取り組み、アフリカだけでなく、中東、アジアなど世界に展開してきた。

JGC is a pioneering Japanese corporation in doing business abroad. Over 70 percent of its sales are earned in other countries. We have to take very seriously the fact that even JGC, with its thorough knowledge of operating in developing countries, could fall victim to terrorism.
 売上高に占める海外比率は7割超に達し、海外で稼ぐパイオニア企業である。途上国ビジネスに精通していた日揮ですら、テロに巻き込まれたのは深刻だ。

===

Risks in developing countries

"[The hostage-taking incident] shows the challenge of doing business and securing safety simultaneously," said JGC President Koichi Kawana at a press conference. His words reflect a common challenge for other Japanese firms operating abroad.
 川名浩一社長は記者会見で「安全を確保しながらビジネスを進めていく課題を突き付けられた」と述べた。海外展開する日本企業に共通の課題と言えよう。

About 15 Japanese companies have offices in Algeria. In other African countries that are also rich in natural resources and expected to grow economically, Japanese firms compete with each other in the trade, construction, automobile and many other industries.
 アルジェリアには日本企業約15社の拠点がある。資源が豊富で成長が期待されるアフリカ各地で、商社、ゼネコン、自動車など様々な業界が競っている。

According to a survey by the Japan External Trade Organization, 70 percent of Japanese firms operating in Africa said the continent will become increasingly important. But 90 percent said Africa had problems regarding political and social stability, which undermines security. The figures show the dilemma such firms face.
 日本貿易振興機構(ジェトロ)の調査では、アフリカに進出した日本企業の7割が「アフリカの重要性が増す」と答える一方、9割が「治安など政治的・社会的な安定性」を問題点に挙げた。各社のジレンマがうかがえる。

After the latest incident, Japanese firms operating abroad have taken defensive measures such as prohibiting employees from traveling to countries where security concerns are high and enhancing the security of their offices and plants. We think those are appropriate actions.
 今回の事件後、各社は治安悪化が懸念される国への出張を禁止したり、事務所やプラントなどの警備を強化するなどの自衛策を打ち出した。当然の対応だろう。

===

Coordinate with governments

However, there is a limit to the defensive measures a private company can afford to take. We expect companies to reexamine their security measures by strengthening their coordination with the Japanese government and the governments of the other countries where they operate.
 だが、一企業による自衛策には限界もある。政府や地元政府などとの連携を強化し、安全対策を総点検してもらいたい。

Meanwhile, the government plans to review its own response to the incident while organizing a panel of experts to study ways to protect Japanese nationals abroad. It is important to discuss the risks in developing countries from a broader perspective.
 政府は、事件対応を検証するとともに、有識者懇談会を設置し、邦人保護のあり方を検討する。幅広い観点からの議論が重要だ。

We would like to suggest that both ruling and opposition parties begin talks as soon as possible on establishing a Japanese version of the U.S. National Security Council to enhance the government's ability to systematically gather and analyze intelligence on terrorism.
 テロ関連の情報収集・分析体制を強化するため、国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)の早期設置へ与野党協議を始めてはどうか。

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner New Komeito plan to discuss revision of the Self-Defense Forces Law. Though it is already possible under the current law to transport Japanese nationals on SDF ships and planes, the parties are considering revising the law so that the SDF can also rescue and transport Japanese people on land in other countries.
 自民、公明両党は自衛隊法改正を検討する。現行法で可能な自衛艦・航空機による邦人輸送に加え外国での邦人救出や陸上輸送を可能にすることを想定している。

However, the advance agreement of the countries concerned will be necessary for the SDF to carry out such missions. The missions will also require a relaxation of the rules on the use of weapons, which is narrowly restricted to immediate self-defense at present. It will also be necessary to specially train Ground Self-Defense Force members in how to protect people in their care.
 しかし、新たな任務の実施は当事国の同意が前提となる。正当防衛などに限定されている武器使用基準の緩和のほか、陸上自衛隊には警護任務の特殊な訓練が求められる。

The ruling parties should have serious and responsible discussions of these issues.
これらの課題について、しっかり論議することが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 26, 2013)
(2013年1月26日01時36分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 06:32| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月27日

税制改正大綱 難題先送りでは責任果たせぬ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 26, 2013)
Postponing tax question will not lead to solution
税制改正大綱 難題先送りでは責任果たせぬ(1月25日付・読売社説)

A stopgap approach to resolving a challenge can never lead to reinvigoration of the national economy. Drastic revision of the tax system is urgently needed now.
 その場しのぎの対応では、日本経済は活性化しない。税制の抜本的な改革が急務である。

The Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner New Komeito have decided on an outline of the ruling bloc's tax system revisions for fiscal 2013.
 自民、公明両党が2013年度の与党税制改正大綱を決定した。

With the consumption tax rate scheduled to be raised to 8 percent from April 2014, the posture of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's administration has drawn much attention.
 14年4月に予定される消費税率の8%への引き上げを控え、安倍政権の姿勢が問われていた。

Regarding the wisdom of applying a reduced rate to such goods as foodstuffs, the two parties have agreed to strive to introduce a lower tax rate when the consumption tax is raised from 8 percent to 10 percent in October 2015.
 焦点となった食料品などの消費税率を抑える軽減税率は、消費税が8%から10%に上がる15年10月導入を目指すことで合意した。

The LDP and Komeito seem to have postponed the introduction of a low tax rate on daily necessities mainly because they took into account objections from small and midsize businesses and others that their business operations would be complicated by the introduction of a reduced tax rate.
 軽減税率導入に伴う煩雑な手続きに不満を抱く中小企業などに配慮したと言える。

To secure public understanding about the consumption tax increase, however, it is definitely desirable to implement a lower rate system when the rate is raised to 8 percent. We believe the decision to put off its introduction is problematic.
 だが、消費増税への国民の理解を得るには、税率を8%にする時から導入する方が望ましい。実施時期の先送りは問題である。

===

Reduced rate must be 5%

The LDP and Komeito have agreed to have the specific rate of reduction, and the range of lower-rate goods, discussed by a panel of experts and to reach a conclusion toward the end of the year when deciding on tax system revisions for fiscal 2014.
 自公両党は、専門委員会で税率や対象品目などを協議し、今年末に決める14年度税制改正で結論を出すという。

Discussions on the issue must be launched promptly to ensure that lower rate arrangements are implemented when the tax is raised to 10 percent.
速やかに検討を始め、10%段階での導入を確実にしなければならない。

When the low tax rate system is introduced, the rate should be set at 5 percent on not only foodstuffs but also newspapers and magazines, which are public goods that serve as pillars of democracy.
 その際、軽減する消費税率は5%とし、対象には食料品のほか、民主主義を支える公共財である新聞・雑誌も含めるべきだ。

Discussions on the motor vehicle acquisition tax and weight tax were difficult to the last, and the question of how to deal with these taxes was narrowly settled as a result of concessions by various sides.
 最後まで調整が難航した自動車取得税と自動車重量税の扱いも、妥協の末に決着した。

Under the LDP-Komeito accord, the motor vehicle acquisition tax will be reduced when the consumption tax is raised to 8 percent and abolished when the rate is increased to 10 percent. As for the weight tax, the current tax breaks on eco-friendly vehicles will become permanent, with a view to using the motor vehicle-related tax revenue for improving and maintaining roads.
 取得税を消費税8%時に引き下げ、10%時に廃止する一方、重量税はエコカー減税を恒久化し、道路整備に充てる方針だ。

The planned abolition of the motor vehicle acquisition tax will reduce local governments' tax revenues by about 200 billion yen a year.
 取得税の廃止により、地方税収が年間約2000億円減る。

The tax system revision outline stipulates that abolition of the acquisition tax will "not adversely affect the finances of local governments." There have been no prospects, however, of how to secure revenue sources to make up for the lost income.
大綱は「地方財政に影響を及ぼさない」と明記したが、代替財源の見通しは立っていない。

===

Simplify motor vehicle taxes

The automobile industry has called for abolition of both the motor vehicle acquisition tax and weight tax. It argues that they will cause a slump in motor vehicle sales if they remain in place after the consumption tax goes up. But local governments, concerned about loss of revenue, have opposed the abolition of the two taxes.
 自動車業界は「消費増税で販売不振を招く」として取得税と重量税の廃止を求め、税収減を懸念する自治体が反対した。

Apparently taking this summer's House of Councillors election into account, the LDP-Komeito agreement is an equivocal one intended to show deference to both the automobile industry and local governments.
今夏の参院選をにらみ、業界と地方双方の顔を立てる玉虫色の決着である。

The purposes for which the automobile weight tax is to be used are also problematic.
 重量税の使途も疑問だ。

The two parties' agreement on the matter could eventually lead to a revival of the tax revenues set aside for road construction that the administration of the Democratic Party of Japan did away with in 2009 in the name of reducing fiscal waste.
無駄な公共事業の温床になるとして、自民党政権が09年に廃止した道路特定財源の復活にならないか。

It is important to thoroughly review and simplify the highly complicated tax structure on motor vehicles, including the gasoline tax.
 複雑な仕組みの自動車課税を、ガソリン税を含めて総合的に見直し、簡素化することが重要だ。

Also envisioned in connection with tax system revisions for next fiscal year are increases in income and inheritance taxes on the wealthy. The effect of the tax hikes in securing fiscal resources for the government, however, is certain to be limited, and they may discourage people in high income brackets from working, lessening the nation's economic vitality.
 来年度改正では、富裕層を対象に所得税と相続税の課税強化を打ち出した。財源確保の効果は限定的で、労働意欲や経済活力をそぐことになりかねない。

Expansion of the tax breaks on housing loans and on some items of business activity has also been incorporated into the tax system revision outline, but it is unclear how effectively these steps will bolster the economy.
 住宅ローン減税の拡充や企業向け減税も盛り込まれたが、どこまで経済をテコ入れできるかは未知数だ。

Such measures as a full-fledged cut in corporate income tax, coupled with a solid growth strategy, must be realized.
成長戦略と連動した法人税減税などが求められよう。

The government should explore ways to balance the tax burdens in each category of income level, assets and consumption.
 所得・資産・消費で均衡のとれた負担のあり方を探るべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 25, 2013)
(2013年1月25日01時20分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 08:04| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月26日

対「北」制裁強化 安保理決議の実効性を高めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 25, 2013)
Sanctions on North Korea meaningless if not effective
対「北」制裁強化 安保理決議の実効性を高めよ(1月24日付・読売社説)

It is crucial for the international community to make continuous efforts to pressure North Korea and improve the effectiveness of sanctions against the country.
 北朝鮮への圧力の手を緩めず、実効性を高めることが重要だ。

On Tuesday, the U.N. Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2087, which boosts sanctions against North Korea.
 国連の安全保障理事会が、北朝鮮への制裁を強化する決議2087を全会一致で採択した。

The resolution condemned Pyongyang's December launch of a long-range ballistic missile, which North Korea claimed sent a satellite into orbit. The Security Council also expressed its "determination to take significant action" if the country launches another missile or conducts a new nuclear test.
 決議は、北朝鮮が「人工衛星打ち上げ」と称して昨年12月、安保理決議に違反する長距離弾道ミサイル発射を強行したことを非難した。新たなミサイル発射や核実験を行う場合、安保理が「重大な行動を取る」とも警告している。

It took time for the Security Council to arrange the details of the sanctions. However, the new resolution means that members of the international community have joined hands to make a tough response to North Korea's provocative actions. This deserves praise.
 制裁内容の調整に時間を要したが、新たな決議採択は、国際社会が結束して北朝鮮の挑発に厳しく対応したものと評価できる。

The latest resolution was a product of compromise between the United States and China, both of whom are permanent members of the Security Council.
 決議は、常任理事国である米国と中国の妥協の結果でもある。

===

Resolution not best, but better

The United States tried to heighten punitive actions against North Korea by adding new sanctions with the help of Japan and South Korea. However, China reportedly opposed this idea and insisted the Security Council should issue a presidential statement--which is not legally binding--instead of a resolution.
 米国は、日本や韓国と連携しながら、制裁の枠組みを広げ、強化することを目指した。これに対し中国は当初、新たな制裁には否定的で、法的拘束力のない議長声明とするよう主張したという。

In the end, the Security Council decided to adopt a resolution but refrained from imposing new sanctions on North Korea. Instead, the Security Council has beefed up existing sanctions stipulated in previous resolutions, such as adding new entities to its travel ban and freeze on assets.
 最終的に決議採択に落ち着く代わりに、中身は、資産凍結や海外渡航禁止措置の対象追加など、既存の決議に基づく制裁強化にとどまった。

The resolution could have been better if it imposed new sanctions, such as obligating member countries to inspect North Korean cargos. However, this is clear progress compared to the Security's Council's response to North Korea's previous missile launch in April.
貨物検査の義務づけなど新規制裁に踏み込まなかった点で物足りなさは残る。
 それでも、昨年4月に北朝鮮がミサイルを発射した際、中国の反対で安保理が北朝鮮を非難する議長声明しか出せなかったのに比べると前進だ。

At that time the Security Council only managed to issue a presidential statement condemning North Korea, due to protests from China. It is clear that the Security Council's lukewarm response has inflated Pyongyang's ego, and is one reason the nation decided to launch another missile in December.
当時の甘い対応が北朝鮮を増長させ、再度の発射を許す一因となったのは明らかだ。

The Security Council's new resolution has drawn an angry response from North Korea. The nation said it will take countermeasures against the resolution and "bolster its military capabilities for self-defense, including nuclear deterrence." This could be interpreted as expressing Pyongyang's intention to conduct a fresh nuclear test.
 北朝鮮は、安保理決議に強く反発し、「核抑止力を含む自衛的な軍事力」を強化する「対応措置」を講じると宣言した。核実験の予告とも受け取れる。

North Korea has twice conducted nuclear tests, both of which took place in response to the Security Council's condemnation of Pyongyang's missile launches. If the international community fails to prevent Pyongyang from conducting a third test, the horror of a nuclear-armed North Korea will become more imminent, further exacerbating regional tensions.
 北朝鮮は、安保理にミサイル発射を非難されたのに対抗して、2回の核実験を強行した。3回目を許せば、核ミサイルの脅威が高まり、地域は一層緊張しよう。

===

China must act

As a permanent member of the Security Council and a regional neighbor, China should strongly urge North Korea to stop threatening the international community.
 中国は、安保理常任理事国として、隣国の北朝鮮に挑発をやめるよう厳しく迫るべきだ。

The underlying reason why China agreed to adopting a U.N. resolution is its strained relationship with the United States over Beijing's territorial claims in the South China Sea and to the Senkaku Islands. We believe China judged it would be an additional burden on the country if it also clashed with the United States over North Korea.
 中国が制裁強化決議に同意した背景には、南シナ海の領有権問題や尖閣諸島を巡って米国とのあつれきを深める中、北朝鮮問題でも対立する事態は重荷となるため、避けたいとの判断もあろう。

Efforts to boost sanctions against North Korea will be meaningless if they fail to produce tangible results. China, which accounts for about 70 percent of North Korea's trade, has a heavy responsibility to strictly comply with and strengthen the sanctions, such as an embargo on commodities related to weapons of mass destruction and luxury goods.
 制裁を強化しても、効果が上がらなければ意味はない。北朝鮮の貿易額の7割を占める中国には、大量破壊兵器関連物資や贅沢(ぜいたく)品の禁輸などの制裁を順守、徹底し、強化する重い責任がある。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga has said the government plans to take independent action against North Korea, such as beefing up Japan's sanctions against the country. We urge the government to come up with ideas that will effectively discourage North Korea's provocations.
 菅官房長官は、日本も独自の制裁を強化する考えを示した。効果的な策を検討してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 24, 2013)
(2013年1月24日01時07分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 06:33| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月25日

邦人死亡確認 人命軽視はやむを得ないか

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 24, 2013)
Was military action only way to end Algerian siege?
邦人死亡確認 人命軽視はやむを得ないか(1月23日付・読売社説)

The Algerian hostage crisis has ended with tragic consequences.
 痛ましい結末だ。

Seven Japanese, including employees of plant engineering and manufacturing firm JGC Corp., were confirmed to have been killed during an attack on an Algerian natural gas plant by a group of Islamist militants.
 アルジェリアの天然ガス関連施設がイスラム武装勢力に襲われた事件でプラントメーカー「日揮」社員ら日本人7人の死亡が確認された。

We condemn the criminal group for targeting "corporate warriors" diligently working in a foreign country under severe conditions.
 過酷な環境の異国で仕事に励む“企業戦士”を標的にした犯罪者集団を強く非難する。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe denounced the terrorist attack Tuesday, saying: "It's extremely heartbreaking. We'll never tolerate terrorism." We agree entirely.
 安倍首相が「痛恨の極みだ。テロを絶対に許さない」と言明したのは、当然である。

The siege was unusual in that more than 30 heavily armed terrorists held hostage scores of people from several countries, including Japan, Britain and the United States.
 30人を超す重武装のテロ集団が日米英など多国籍の外国人多数を拘束する特異な事件だった。

An investigation must be conducted urgently to get to the bottom of this incident. Suspicion has arisen that the assailants had collaborators at the plant who provided information and guidance.
 事件の全容解明と検証が急がれる。施設内に内通者がいて武装勢力を手引きした疑いがある。

At a news conference Monday, Algerian Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal said 37 foreigners died and 29 militants were killed in the siege.
 アルジェリアのセラル首相は記者会見で、外国人37人が死亡、犯人29人を殺害したと述べた。

===

Hostages' lives not priority?

The Algerian military operation to bring the situation under control as soon as possible has been criticized for not giving enough consideration to the hostages' lives. Sellal stood by the decision to launch the assault by stressing his government's stance of not yielding to terrorism. His statement also reflects the domestic situation in which long years of civil war killed as many as 150,000 people in Algeria.
 アルジェリア軍の早期制圧作戦には、人質の人命軽視との批判があった。セラル首相が「テロに屈しない」と強調した背景には、長年の内戦で15万人もの犠牲者を出した国内事情もあるだろう。

Sellal said launching the military operation soon after the siege started was necessary because the militants had attempted to flee Algeria with the hostages and planted explosives in a bid to blow up the gas complex.
 武装勢力が人質を連れて国外逃亡を図ったほか、ガス田施設を破壊しようと爆弾を仕掛けており、それを阻止するには早期制圧が不可欠だった、とも説明した。

If the militants had been allowed to get away with their crimes, it could lead to second and third terrorist attacks. The Algerian government apparently felt it had no alternative but to resort to the use of force.
 今回の武装勢力の犯行を許せば、第2、第3のテロを誘発しかねない。アルジェリア政府としては、武力行使以外に選択肢がなかったということなのだろう。

Any unilateral attack on economic activity in a civilized society must be met with return fire.
 文明社会で営まれる経済活動に一方的に攻撃を仕掛けられたら、応戦せざるを得ない。

British Prime Minister David Cameron expressed dissatisfaction over the fact that his government was not told of the military operation in advance. But after the siege ended, he showed a degree of understanding of the early Algerian military operation by saying resolving the crisis would be a very difficult mission for security forces of any country.
 キャメロン英首相は、武力行使の事前通告がなかったことに不満を表明していたが、事件終結後は「どの国の治安部隊にも非常に難しい任務」だったと指摘し、早期制圧に一定の理解を示した。

===

Lessons for Japan

The Abe administration has dispatched a government-chartered aircraft to Algeria to bring home survivors and the victims' bodies. We also urge the government to quickly confirm what happened to three Japanese who remain unaccounted for.
 安倍政権は政府専用機をアルジェリアに派遣し、生存者の帰国や遺体の搬送を進める。なお安否が不明な3人の確認も急ぎたい。

It is important that the Algerian government be asked to give detailed explanations on the circumstances under which the military operation was conducted, and how the Japanese died.
 どういう状況で軍事作戦が行われ、日本人が死亡したのかについて、アルジェリア政府に詳細な説明を求めることが大切だ。

The crisis has brought problems with the Japanese government's crisis management system to the surface.
 一方で、日本政府の危機管理体制上の課題も浮かび上がった。

Like the United States and European countries also affected by the siege, Japan only obtained scant snippets of information while the Algerian forces conducted the military operation.
 アルジェリア軍が軍事作戦を主導する中、欧米諸国と同様、事件情報がほとんど取れなかった。

Japan has 49 uniformed defense attaches stationed overseas, including only two in Africa--one in Egypt and one in Sudan. The number of such attaches in Africa must be steadily increased.
 自衛隊制服組の防衛駐在官は現在、世界全体で49人いるが、アフリカはエジプトとスーダンの2人だけだ。着実な増員が必要だ。

To protect Japanese firms operating in troubled regions, specialists with expertise on these areas and antiterrorism measures should be trained, and the nation's information-gathering and analyzing capabilities strengthened.
 紛争地域に進出した日本企業を守るには、各地域やテロ対策の専門家を育成し、情報収集・分析能力を高めることが急務である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 23, 2013)
(2013年1月23日02時00分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 06:56| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月24日

防衛指針見直し 同盟強化へ日本の役割拡充を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 23, 2013)
Japan's role must be enhanced in defense cooperation with U.S.
防衛指針見直し 同盟強化へ日本の役割拡充を(1月22日付・読売社説)

The effectiveness of the Japan-U.S. alliance cannot be guaranteed through a treaty and documents alone. It is essential to expand the role of the Self-Defense Forces and enhance the relationship of trust between the two nations by having Japan undertake its fair share of responsibilities and burdens.
 日米同盟の実効性は、条約や文書だけでは担保されない。自衛隊の役割を拡大し、日本が応分の責任と負担を引き受けて両国の信頼関係を高めることが欠かせない。

The Japanese and U.S. governments have started reviewing the guidelines for bilateral defense cooperation. Given the Chinese military's recent expanded maritime activities and other factors, the review of guidelines is meant to effectively strengthen cooperation between the SDF and U.S. forces.
 日米両政府が、日米防衛協力指針(ガイドライン)の見直し作業を開始した。中国軍の海洋進出などを踏まえ、自衛隊と米軍の連携を実質的に強化するものだ。

The current guidelines released in 1997 enabled the SDF to provide logistic support to U.S. forces in the event of an emergency in areas surrounding Japan, and led to the establishment of legislation in 1999 on the nation's response to such contingencies.
 1997年策定の現行指針は、日本周辺有事における自衛隊の対米軍後方支援を可能にし、99年の周辺事態法整備につながった。

It was of great significance that defense cooperation was concretely stipulated in preparations for any contingency on the Korean Peninsula--a crisis that could happen on Japan's doorstep--and that a new direction for the Japan-U.S. alliance in the post-Cold War era was clearly spelled out.
 朝鮮半島有事という目の前の危機に備えて具体的な防衛協力を定め、冷戦後の新たな日米同盟の方向性を明示した意義は大きい。

===

Security situation severe

But since then, the security situation in areas around Japan has become even more severe: China is pushing on with a robust military buildup and has engaged in saber-rattling around the Senkaku Islands, and North Korea conducted two nuclear tests.
 だが、その後、中国の大幅な軍備増強や尖閣諸島周辺での示威活動、北朝鮮の2回の核実験などによって、日本周辺の安全保障情勢は一段と厳しくなっている。

This fundamental review of Japan-U.S. defense cooperation, for the first time in 16 years, fits in neatly with the United States' "rebalance" toward Asia, which was clearly expressed in its new defense strategy guidelines released in January last year, and the planned revision of Japan's National Defense Program Guidelines as early as this year. We highly regard the review of bilateral defense cooperation.
 16年ぶりに日米協力のあり方を抜本的に見直すことは、「アジア重視」を鮮明にした昨年1月の米国の新国防戦略や、年内にも日本の防衛大綱を改定する流れと合致しており、高く評価したい。

One focal point in this process will be tightening Japan-U.S. cooperation in times of peace.
 指針見直しの焦点の一つは、平時における日米協力の強化だ。

Since the contingency law was established, an emergency situation has yet to be recognized under the law. It is imperative that the SDF and U.S. forces work closely in sharing information to prevent a crisis from occurring and establish systems to jointly deal with any situation that has become tense but is yet to reach the point of being an emergency.
 法制定後、周辺事態は一度も認定されていない。周辺事態には至らないものの、情勢が緊迫した段階で、自衛隊と米軍が緊密に情報交換して危機を抑止し、共同対処する態勢を築くことが大切だ。

We want more joint exercises by the Ground Self-Defense Force and U.S. Marine Corps for the defense of remote islands, and expanded warning and surveillance operations through joint operations by the Air Self-Defense Force and the U.S. Air Force of Global Hawk unmanned surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft.
 陸上自衛隊と米海兵隊による離島防衛の共同訓練や、航空自衛隊と米空軍の無人偵察機グローバルホークの共同運用による警戒監視活動の拡充を着実に進めたい。

===

Ease restrictions on support

The SDF can provide refueling and transport support to U.S. forces only in emergency situations. We suggest consideration be given to enabling these operations in times of peace as well.
 自衛隊による米軍への補給・輸送支援については、現在の有事限定から、平時も実施可能にすることを検討してはどうか。

Cooperation should not just be limited to the SDF and U.S. forces, but also concrete measures for cooperation involving such organs as the Japan Coast Guard and police, as well as the military forces of South Korea, Australia and India, should be compiled.
 自衛隊と米軍の協力にとどまらず、海上保安庁、警察や韓国、豪州、インド各軍などとの連携に関する具体策もまとめるべきだ。

Another key issue in the spotlight is whether Japan can exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 もう一つの焦点は、集団的自衛権の行使に関する問題である。

The government is expected to soon hear opinions again from an expert panel launched under the first Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, and start studying how to handle the right to collective self-defense.
 政府は近く、行使容認を提言した第1次安倍内閣の有識者会議から改めて意見聴取し、集団的自衛権の扱いの検討を始める。

If a U.S. military vessel comes under attack during a joint exercise on the high seas, an SDF vessel will launch a counterattack. If a ballistic missile is heading toward the United States, Japan will intercept it. These are among four scenarios that had been studied by the expert panel. We think it is an urgent task to enable the nation to use its right to collective self-defense in these four scenarios.
 公海上で共同訓練中の米軍艦船が攻撃された際、自衛隊艦船が反撃する。米国に向かう弾道ミサイルを日本が迎撃する――。有識者会議が研究した、これら4類型については集団的自衛権の行使を可能にすることが急務である。

Reflecting such a tangible result properly in the process of reviewing the defense cooperation guidelines will further solidify the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 その結果をガイドライン見直しに適切に反映させることが、日米同盟をより強固にしよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 22, 2013)
(2013年1月22日01時34分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 06:55| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月23日

邦人人質事件 テロ封じに国際連携が肝要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 22, 2013)
Intl cooperation needed to stamp out terrorism
邦人人質事件 テロ封じに国際連携が肝要だ(1月21日付・読売社説)

The terrorist attack and hostage-taking incident launched by an armed Islamist group in Algeria has come to a bloody end.
 イスラム武装勢力によるテロが引き起こした惨劇である。

It will be essential to get to the bottom of this incident so measures to prevent any repeat occurrence can be devised.
 事件の全容を解明し、再発防止策につなげたい。

The incident at a natural gas plant at Ain Amenas in eastern Algeria ended Saturday, three days after it started, when Algerian special forces stormed the complex to bring the situation under control.
 アルジェリア東部イナメナスの天然ガス関連施設で発生した人質事件は、アルジェリア軍が制圧作戦を強行し、発生から4日間で終わった。

Dozens of Islamist militants and hostages have been confirmed dead, according to the Algerian government. The dead reportedly include Japanese employees of JGC Corp., a major plant engineering and manufacturing firm. We offer our sincere condolences to the victims caught up in this incident and their families.
 アルジェリア政府によると多数の武装勢力と人質の死亡が確認されている。プラントメーカー「日揮」の邦人関係者の死亡情報もある。事件に巻き込まれた犠牲者に哀悼の意を表したい。

Algerian government forces launched an attack on the terrorists Thursday, the day after the hostages were seized. This reflected its sense of urgency that similar terrorist attacks might follow unless the crisis was brought under control immediately.
 アルジェリア政府は、事件発生の翌日の17日、武装勢力への攻撃を開始した。早期に制圧しなければ、同種のテロを誘発しかねないという危機感からだろう。

===

Attack can't be condoned

In the 1990s, about 150,000 people were killed in an internal war between Algerian government forces and Islamist militants. In view of this, the Algerian government was unbending in its refusal of any request for negotiations with the terrorists this time.
 1990年代に政府とイスラム武装勢力との内戦で、約15万人もの死者を出したという事情もある。テロリストとは「いかなる交渉も拒否する」方針だった。

The Islamist group's capture of plant workers and taking them hostage is a despicable act of terrorism that can never be condoned. This is obvious. But a question arises over whether the Algerian military operation was taken after carefully working out a strategy from the viewpoint of rescuing the hostages.
 武装勢力の人質事件は卑劣なテロ行為であり、断じて許すことはできないのは当然だ。ただ、アルジェリア政府の軍事行動は、人質救出の観点から周到に練られたものだったのだろうか。

In talks with Algerian Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal over the telephone Sunday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed regret that the crisis had ended in a bloodbath. Abe was quoted as telling Sellal: "Japan had called for giving top priority to the hostages' safety. It was regrettable that we received severe information about the Japanese hostages."
 安倍首相は20日、アルジェリアのセラル首相との電話会談で「人命最優先と申し入れてきた。日本人の安否に関して厳しい情報に接することになったのは残念だ」と軍事行動に遺憾の意を示した。

===

Lack of communication

British Prime Minister David Cameron has expressed dissatisfaction over the fact that his government was not told of the attack in advance. Communication between the Algerian government and countries affected by the crisis was not smooth, and Algeria's release of information on the safety of hostages has been insufficient.
 キャメロン英首相も、事前通告がなかったことに不満を表明した。アルジェリアと関係国の意思疎通は円滑ではなく、安否に関する情報の提供も不十分だった。

The Algerian government must unveil to the international community all the details of the hostage crisis and its rescue operations after investigating why it could not prevent the militants from entering a vital gas plant where many foreigners work.
 アルジェリア政府は、外国人が大勢働く重要な施設に武装勢力の侵入を許した原因や、救出作戦の詳細など、事件の全貌を国際社会に明らかにする必要がある。

Armed Islamist forces are active not only in Algeria but also in northern and western areas of Africa. Unraveling the hostage-taking incident will help shed more light on this situation.
 イスラム武装勢力はアルジェリアだけでなく、アフリカ北・西部一帯を股にかけて活動している。事件の解明により、その実態をつかむ手がかりが得られよう。

The international community must use this incident as a step toward standing firm against terrorism and taking effective steps to stamp it out.
 今回の事件を、国際社会がテロに対して毅然(きぜん)として立ち向かい、有効な手立てを講じるための一歩としなくてはならない。

The siege has left many issues to be addressed by Japanese companies operating overseas. They need to urgently review their crisis prevention and response arrangements.
 一方、事件は、海外展開する日本企業にも課題を残した。危機への備えの再点検が急務である。

Abe took the lead in working out government measures to handle the hostage crisis. It may be said that Japan reacted diligently to the crisis, with the Prime Minister's Office at the heart of the response.
 日本政府は安倍首相が陣頭指揮に当たった。首相官邸を中心に精力的な対応を見せたと言える。

However, the government's information-gathering and analyzing capabilities have been revealed to be inadequate. The government should consider necessary measures including a review of the personnel in diplomatic missions overseas. Further efforts must be made to bolster the country's crisis management system.
 ただ、政府の情報収集・分析が十分とは言えまい。在外公館の陣容の見直しなど必要な措置を検討すべきだ。危機管理体制を一層強化してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 21, 2013)
(2013年1月21日01時50分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 06:15| Comment(0) | 読売英字

2013年01月22日

中国大気汚染 成長至上主義の限界露呈した

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 19, 2013)
China's air pollution shows limits of focus on growth
中国大気汚染 成長至上主義の限界露呈した(1月18日付・読売社説)

China now has to pay the price for its distorted policy of ignoring environmental protection measures as a result of its focus on economic growth above all else.
 経済成長至上主義で環境対策を軽視してきたツケと歪(ゆが)みをさらけ出したといえるだろう。

In various Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious problem. In Beijing, for instance, the concentration of particulate matter 2.5 micrometers in diameter or less--known as PM2.5--found per cubic meter in smoke from factories and exhaust gas from automobiles briefly rose to more than 10 times the recommended environmental standard in China and nearly 40 times the safe limit in the guideline set by the World Health Organization.
 中国の各都市で大気汚染が深刻化している。
 工場の排煙や自動車の排ガスなどに含まれる直径2・5マイクロ・メートル以下の微小粒子状物質(PM2・5)が1立方メートル当たりの観測値で、北京で一時、基準値の10倍以上、世界保健機関(WHO)指針値の40倍近くに達した。

PM2.5 particles can penetrate deep inside the lungs, causing asthma, bronchitis and lung cancer. Thick smog containing these particles has been generated in China, and the number of people with respiratory ailments has sharply increased. Low visibility caused by the smog has greatly affected traffic.
 PM2・5は肺の奥まで入り込み、ぜんそくや気管支炎、肺がんを発症させる物質だ。これを含んだ濃霧が発生し、呼吸器疾患の患者が急増した。視界不良により交通機関にも大きな影響が出た。

===

Environment ignored

The daily life of Japanese living in the country has been also threatened, with two schools for Japanese children in Shanghai recently suspending students' outside activities. This is a serious environmental pollution that cannot be overlooked.
 上海の日本人学校では、屋外活動が中止になるなど、在留邦人の生活も脅かされている。看過できない甚大な環境汚染である。

The main causes of the thick smog are an increase in exhaust gas, the combustion of coal for heating and a lack of strong wind, resulting in the retention of polluted air in the atmosphere. The phenomenon occurs every year around this time, but this year the pollution is extremely bad.
 暖房用の石炭焼却に伴う排ガスが増え、風が弱く空気が滞留したことなどが濃霧の原因だ。毎年この時期に起きる現象だが、今年は特に劣悪な汚染となった。

Factors behind the situation include the disorderly expansion of production activities along with sharp economic growth and a drastic increase in the number of automobiles.
 背景にあるのは、急成長に伴う生産活動の無秩序な拡大と自動車の激増である。

Manufacturers do not observe environmental regulations and regional authorities do not supervise them strictly. The quality of desulfurization devices is said to be poor and some even say many are not operating.
 製造業者は環境規制を守らず、地方当局もそれを厳しく監督していない。脱硫装置の性能は低く、稼働してさえいないとされる。

Under a "scientific development concept" banner, the previous administration of Hu Jintao transformed the country's gross domestic product-centered policy and declared it would aim at sustainable development while also paying consideration to the environment. However, the current reality shows the level of China's environmental pollution has already gone beyond the acceptable limit.
 胡錦濤前政権は、「科学的発展観」を掲げて、それまでの国内総生産(GDP)中心の方針を転換し、環境へも配慮する持続可能な発展を目指すとしてきた。だが、実態は環境汚染が限界に来ていることを示している。

If environmental measures are delayed, the Chinese government will have to pay a great price for its mistaken policy. The Xi Jinping administration must fully recognize this and take measures to sufficiently deal with the air pollution.
 環境対策が遅れれば、その代償は一層大きくなる。そのことを習近平政権は十分に認識し、万全の対策を講じるべきである。

===

Japan's problem, too

For Japan, the air pollution in China is not a fire on the opposite side of the river. Similarly to yellow sand, the particles will disperse into neighboring countries such as Japan and South Korea via westerly winds. So it is unavoidable for the pollutants to cause a certain degree of contamination across borders.
 中国の大気汚染は人ごとではない。黄砂と同様に、偏西風で日本や韓国など周辺国へと拡散し、一定の越境汚染は避けられない。

Although it is not yet determined that they came from China, particulate matter exceeding the Japanese safety level has been observed in Japan. Caution will be necessary hereafter.
 中国からの飛来とは断定できないが、基準を超える微小粒子状物質が日本で観測されている。今後も警戒を要するだろう。

Japan has promoted cooperation with China in energy saving and environmental protection to create a mutually beneficial relationship based on common strategic interests. We wonder to what extent this policy produced results.
 日本は中国との戦略的互恵関係を構築しようと、省エネ・環境協力を前進させてきたが、どこまで効果をもたらしたのか。

More than a dozen nuclear reactors have been operating in China, and the government plans to construct more than 50 additional reactors.
 中国は原子力発電所十数基を運転させ、50基以上の建設を計画している。

If a reactor accident took place, it would have an immeasurable effect on Japan. There must be many ways Japan can cooperate with China in this field.
万一、原発事故が発生すれば、日本への影響は計り知れない。この分野でも日本が中国に協力できることは多いはずだ。

Japan should patiently appeal to China about the importance of environmental problems and needs to call on the country to utilize the know-how of Japan's antipollution measures.
 日本は中国に対し、環境問題の重要性を粘り強く訴え、中国が日本の公害対策のノウハウを活用するよう働きかける必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 18, 2013)
(2013年1月18日02時01分 読売新聞)
posted by srachai at 07:12| 読売英字